Objectives Identify the causes of climate Explain how Earth’s temperature is maintained Identify Earth’s three main climate zones
Weather The day to day condition of earth’s atmosphere at a particular time and place
Climate The average, year after year condition of temperature and precipitation in a particular region Caused by an interplay of many factors especially incoming sunlight
The Greenhouse Effect Carbon dioxide, methane, water vapor, and a few other atmospheric gases trap heat energy and maintain Earth’s temperature range. Just as the glass keeps the greenhouse plants warm, so these gases trap the heat energy of sunlight inside Earth’s atmosphere.
Greenhouse effect The natural situation in which heat is retained by this layer of greenhouse gases
As a result of differences in latitude and thus the angle of heating, Earth has three main climate zones: polar, temperate, and tropical. The more direct the rays are the ________________ an area of land will heat up. More
abiotic The non-living factors of an environment Ex.) water, soil, air Together, biotic and abiotic factors determine the survival and growth of an organism and the productivity of the ecosystem in which the organism lives
Niche The role an organism plays in its environment A niche is the full range of physical and biological conditions in which an organism lives and the way in which the organism uses those conditions. No two species can share the same niche in the same habitat
Community Interactions Community interactions, such as competition, predation, and various forms of symbiosis, can powerfully affect an ecosystem.
Competition Competition occurs when organisms of the same or different species attempt to use an ecological resource in the same place at the same time Direct competition in nature often results in a winner and a loser— with the losing organism failing to survive
Competitive exclusion principle States that no two species can occupy the same niche in the same habitat at the same time
Predation When one organism captures and feeds on another organism The organism that does the killing and eating is called the Predator, and the food organism is the Prey.
Symbiosis Any relationship in which two species live closely together Biologists recognize three main classes of symbiotic relationships in nature
Ecological Succession Ecosystems are constantly changing in response to natural and human disturbances. As an ecosystem changes, older inhabitants gradually die out and new organisms move in, causing further changes in the community. The series of predictable changes that occurs in a community over time
Primary Succession Succession that occurs on new land where no soil exists Ex.) volcanic islands, bare exposed rock when glaciers melt
pioneer species The first species to populate an area Ex.) lichen, algae, mosses