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Ecosystems and Communities Chapter 4. 4–1 The Role of Climate.

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Presentation on theme: "Ecosystems and Communities Chapter 4. 4–1 The Role of Climate."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ecosystems and Communities Chapter 4

2 4–1 The Role of Climate

3 Objectives Identify the causes of climate Explain how Earth’s temperature is maintained Identify Earth’s three main climate zones

4 Weather The day to day condition of earth’s atmosphere at a particular time and place

5 Climate The average, year after year condition of temperature and precipitation in a particular region Caused by an interplay of many factors especially incoming sunlight

6 The Greenhouse Effect Carbon dioxide, methane, water vapor, and a few other atmospheric gases trap heat energy and maintain Earth’s temperature range. Just as the glass keeps the greenhouse plants warm, so these gases trap the heat energy of sunlight inside Earth’s atmosphere.

7 Greenhouse effect The natural situation in which heat is retained by this layer of greenhouse gases


9 Greenhouse effect

10 Infrared Radiation Sun Rays Atmosphere Containing Green House Gasses The Sun Temp within limits for life

11 Infrared Radiation Sun Rays Atmosphere Containing Extra Green House Gasses *

12 The Effect of Latitude on Climate Because Earth is a sphere that is tilted on its axis, solar radiation strikes different parts of Earth’s surface at an angle that varies throughout the year.

13 The Effect of Latitude on Climate

14 As a result of differences in latitude and thus the angle of heating, Earth has three main climate zones: polar, temperate, and tropical. The more direct the rays are the ________________ an area of land will heat up. More

15 4–2 What Shapes an Ecosystem?

16 Objectives Explain how biotic and abiotic factors influence an ecosystem Identify the interactions that occur within communities Describe how ecosystems recover from a disturbance

17 biotic Living factors of an environment

18 abiotic The non-living factors of an environment Ex.) water, soil, air Together, biotic and abiotic factors determine the survival and growth of an organism and the productivity of the ecosystem in which the organism lives

19 Habitat Where an organism lives

20 Squirrel in tree

21 Fish in stream

22 Niche The role an organism plays in its environment A niche is the full range of physical and biological conditions in which an organism lives and the way in which the organism uses those conditions. No two species can share the same niche in the same habitat


24 Community Interactions Community interactions, such as competition, predation, and various forms of symbiosis, can powerfully affect an ecosystem.

25 Competition Competition occurs when organisms of the same or different species attempt to use an ecological resource in the same place at the same time Direct competition in nature often results in a winner and a loser— with the losing organism failing to survive

26 Competitive exclusion principle States that no two species can occupy the same niche in the same habitat at the same time

27 Predation When one organism captures and feeds on another organism The organism that does the killing and eating is called the Predator, and the food organism is the Prey.

28 Symbiosis Any relationship in which two species live closely together Biologists recognize three main classes of symbiotic relationships in nature

29 Mutualism When both members benefit


31 Ant – Acacia Tree

32 Commensalism When one member benefits and the other is neither helped nor harmed

33 Clownfish – Sea Anemone


35 Parasitism When one member benefits and the other is harmed

36 Humans - Tapeworms

37 Ecological Succession Ecosystems are constantly changing in response to natural and human disturbances. As an ecosystem changes, older inhabitants gradually die out and new organisms move in, causing further changes in the community. The series of predictable changes that occurs in a community over time

38 Primary Succession Succession that occurs on new land where no soil exists Ex.) volcanic islands, bare exposed rock when glaciers melt

39 pioneer species The first species to populate an area Ex.) lichen, algae, mosses


41 Secondary Succession When a disturbed area grows back to normal Ex.) natural disaster areas

42 4–3 Land Biomes

43 Objectives Identify the characteristics of major land biomes

44 Biomes Large geographical areas that have similar climates and characteristics

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