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ITEC 275 Computer Networks – Switching, Routing, and WANs Week 9 Robert D’Andrea Some slides provide by Priscilla Oppenheimer and used with permission.

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Presentation on theme: "ITEC 275 Computer Networks – Switching, Routing, and WANs Week 9 Robert D’Andrea Some slides provide by Priscilla Oppenheimer and used with permission."— Presentation transcript:

1 ITEC 275 Computer Networks – Switching, Routing, and WANs Week 9 Robert D’Andrea Some slides provide by Priscilla Oppenheimer and used with permission

2 Agenda Learning Activities – Network Management Processes – Network Management Architectures – Network Management Tools and Protocols – Campus Cabling – Ethernet – Campus Network Design Example

3 Network Management Processes International Organization for Standardization (ISO) defines five types of network processes – Fault management – Configuration management – Accounting management – Performance management – Security management

4 Network Management Processes Fault management refers to detecting, isolating, diagnosing, and correcting problems. - Develop workarounds - Test workaround - Document workaround in a problem- tracking database - Utilize monitoring tools to alert managers, protocol analyzers for fault resolution - Syslog network contains timestamp, level, and facility. Syslog severity levels are provided

5 Network Management Processes Syslog Levels - Emergency (level 0) - Alert (level 1) - Critical (level 2) - Error (level 3) - Warning (level 4) - Notice (level 5) - Information (level 6) - Debugging (level 7)

6 Network Management Processes Syslog Messages - Sent to Cisco router or switch consoles - Sent to Network Management Station - Sent to a remote network host where a syslog analyzer is installed. A syslog analyzer distributes these messages appropriately to the network node manager, and management.

7 Network Management Processes Configuration Management helps the network manager maintain a list of devices and information installed on those devices. - Version-logging refers to keeping track of the version of operating systems or applications running on networks devices. - Change management includes DHCP and VLAN Trunking Protocol (VTP) automatically updates switches with VLAN information.

8 Network Management Processes Accounting management - Facilitates usage-based billing. If not money is exchanged, it identifies consumption and possibly “abuse” of network resources.

9 Network Management Processes Performance management - Facilitates measurement of network behavior and effectiveness. -Examine network applications - Protocol behavior - End-to-end performance across an internetwork - Component performance of individual links or devices.

10 Network Management Processes Security Management allows the network management maintain and distribute passwords and other authentication information. Security management should also include generating, distributing, and storing encryption keys. – Audit logs should document logins and logouts – Attempts by individuals to change their level of authorization. – Compressing data rather than storing less data

11 Network Management Architectures Managed device: Routers, servers, switches, bridges, hubs, end systems, or printers. Agent: Network management software that resides in a managed device. Network management system (NMS) is a terminal with software that displays management data, monitor and control managed devices, and communicates with agents. Typically located in a network operations center (NOC).

12 Network Management Architectures In-band monitoring is network management data travels across an internetwork using the same paths as user traffic. - Impacts ability to trouble shoot problems Out-of-band monitoring - More complex and expensive - Analog lines are used for backup - Security risks analog links need callback mechanisms

13 Network Management Architectures Centralized monitoring architecture all NMSs reside in one place of the network Distributed monitoring means the NMSs and agents are spread out across the internetwork. - Complex and hard to manage Manage-of-managers (MoM) is a distributed arrangement with a central MNS. The central MNS manages the distributed locations.

14 Network Management Tools and Protocols A network management solution should include tools to isolate, diagnose, and report problems and to expedite recovery and quick repair. – Interfaces can be CLI, GUI, and browser – SMNPv3 should gradually replace versions 1 and 2 because it offers better security, authentication to protect against modification of information, and secure set operations for the remote configuration od SNMP managed devices.

15 Network Management Tools and Protocols Management Information Bases (MIB) stores information from local management agent on a managed device. - Each object in a MIB has a unique identifier. - Network management applications use the identifier to retrieve a specific object. A MIB is a structured tree structure.

16 Network Management Tools and Protocols The MIB structure is logically represented by a tree hierarchy. The root of the tree is unnamed and splits into three main branches: Consultative Committee for International Telegraph and Telephone (CCITT), International Organization for Standardization (ISO), and joint ISO/CCITT.

17 Network Management Tools and Protocols These branches and those that fall below each category have short text strings and integers to identify them. Text strings describe object names, while integers allow computer software to create compact, encoded representations of the names. For example, the Cisco MIB variable authAddr is an object name and is denoted by number 5, which is listed at the end of its object identifier number

18 Network Management Tools and Protocols The object identifier in the Internet MIB hierarchy is the sequence of numeric labels on the nodes along a path from the root to the object. The Internet standard MIB is represented by the object identifier It also can be expressed as


20 Internet MIB Hierarchy

21 Network Management Tools and Protocols RMON Monitoring (RMON) developed to close the gap in the standard MIBs which lacked the capability to provide statistics on data link and physical layer parameters. The IETF developed RMON MIB to provide Ethernet traffic statistics and fault diagnosis. - RMON collects CRC errors - Packet-size distribution - Number of packets in and out

22 Network Management Tools and Protocols - RMON allows the network manager set thresholds for network parameters - RMON configures agents to automatically deliver alerts to NMS. - RMON supports capturing packets and sending the captured packets to the MNS for protocol analysis. - RMON provides information about the health and performance of the network segment.

23 Network Management Tools and Protocols Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP) - Specifies a method for Cisco routers and switches to send configuration information to each other on a regular basis. - CDP runs on the data link layer - Utilizes SNAP - CDP frames are sent every 60 seconds. - - Switches and routers do not forward CDP frames

24 Network Management Tools and Protocols Cisco NetFlow Accounting – Collects and measures data as it enters router or switch interfaces. The information enables a network manager to characterize utilization of network and application resources. – Helps network manager visualize traffic patterns so that proactive problem detection is possible. – NetFlow allows a network manager to gain a detailed, time-based view of application usage.

25 Selecting Technologies and Devices We now know what the network will look like. We also know what capabilities the network will need. We are now ready to start picking out technologies and devices. Chapter 10 has guidelines for campus networks.

26 Campus Network Design Steps Develop a cabling plant design Select the types of cabling Select the data-link-layer technologies Select internetworking devices Meet with vendors

27 Cabling Plant Design Considerations Campus and building cabling topologies The types and lengths of cables between buildings Within buildings – The location of telecommunications closets and cross- connect rooms – The types and lengths of cables for vertical cabling between floors – The types and lengths of cables for horizontal cabling within floors – The types and lengths of cables for work-area cabling going from telecommunications closets to workstations

28 Centralized Versus Distributed Cabling Topologies A centralized cabling scheme terminates most or all of the cable runs in one area of the design environment. A star topology is an example of a centralized system. A distributed cabling scheme terminates cable runs throughout the design environment. Ring, bus, and tree topologies are examples of distributed systems.

29 Centralized Campus Cabling Cable Bundle Building A Building BBuilding CBuilding D

30 Distributed Campus Cabling Building A Building BBuilding CBuilding D

31 Types of Media Used in Campus Networks Copper media Optical media Wireless media

32 Copper Media Advantages Conducts electric current well Does not rust Can be drawn into thin wires Easy to shape Hard to break

33 Copper Media CoaxialTwisted-Pair Shielded Twisted-Pair (STP) Unshielded Twisted-Pair (UTP)

34 Coaxial Cable Solid copper conductor, surrounded by: – Flexible plastic insulation – Braided copper shielding – Outer jacket Can be run without as many boosts from repeaters, for longer distances between network nodes, than either STP or UTP cable – Nonetheless, it’s no longer widely used

35 Twisted-Pair Cabling A “twisted pair” consists of two copper conductors twisted together Each conductor has plastic insulation Shielded Twisted Pair (STP) – Has metal foil or braided-mesh covering that encases each pair Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) – No metal foil or braided-mesh covering around pairs, so it’s less expensive

36 UTP Categories Category 1. Used for voice communication Category 2. Used for voice and data, up to 4 Mbps Category 3. Used for data, up to 10 Mbps – Required to have at least 3 twists per foot – Standard cable for most telephone systems – Also used in 10-Mbps Ethernet (10Base-T Ethernet) Category 4. Used for data, up to 16 Mbps – Must also have at least 3 twists per foot as well as other features Category 5. Used for data, up to 100 Mbps – Must have 3 twists per inch! Category 5e. Used in Gigabit Ethernet Category 6. Used in Gigabit Ethernet and future technologies

37 Types of Cables Mode is an allowable path for light to travel down a fiber. Multimode fiber has multiple modes or paths that light can follow. All paths are not equal. some are longer, and the time it takes to travel down each path more time consuming. Single mode contains a small core diameter, has one path, supports higher bandwith rate over longer distances.

38 Optical Media Multimode Fiber (MMF)Single-mode Fiber (SMF)

39 Copper Vs Fiber-Optic Cabling Twisted-pair and coax cable transmit network signals in the form of current Fiber-optic cable transmits network signals in the form of light Fiber-optic cable is made of glass – Not susceptible to electromagnetic (EMF) or radio frequency interference – Not as susceptible to attenuation, which means longer cables are possible – Supports very high bandwidth (10 Gbps or greater) – For long distances, fiber costs less than copper

40 Multimode Single-mode Larger core diameter Beams of light bounce off cladding in multiple ways Usually uses LED source Less expensive Shorter distances Smaller core diameter Less bouncing around; single, focused beam of light Usually uses LASER source More expensive Very long distances

41 Single/Multi-Mode Fiber

42 Multi-Mode Fiber

43 Ethernet STP is shelded twisted pair cabling. UTP is unshelded twisted pair cabling. Typically found in buildings. Generally, least expensive, lowest transmission capabilities because it is subject to crosstalk, noise, and EMI (Electromagnetic Interference). Coax cabling was popular in the 1980s and 1990s. Not used or installed as it was in the recent past.

44 Ethernet Ethernet is a physical and data link layer standard for the transmission of frames on a LAN. - IEEE802.3 has evolved to support UTP and fiber-optic cabling, and fast transmission speeds. - Gigabit Ethernet is targeted for the core layer on enterprise systems.

45 Wireless Media IEEE 802.11a, b, g, n Laser Microwave Cellular Satellite

46 Cabling Guidelines At the access layer use – Copper UTP rated for Category 5 or 5e, unless there is a good reason not to – To future proof the network Use 5e instead of 5 Install UTP Category 6 rated cable and terminate the cable with Cat 5 or 5e connectors Then only the connectors need to be changed to move up in speed – In special cases Use MMF(Multimode Fiber) for bandwidth intensive applications Or install fiber along with the copper

47 Cabling Guidelines At the distribution layer use – MMF if distance allows – SMF (Single mode fiber) otherwise – Unless unusual circumstances occur and cable cannot be run, then use a wireless method – To future proof the network Run both MMF and SMF

48 LAN Technologies Half-duplex Ethernet (becoming obsolete) Full-duplex Ethernet 10-Mbps Ethernet (becoming obsolete) 100-Mbps Ethernet 1000-Mbps (1-Gbps or Gigabit) Ethernet 10-Gbps Ethernet Metro Ethernet Long Range Ethernet (LRE) Cisco’s EtherChannel

49 10 Mbps Ethernet 10Base5 10Base2 10BaseF Thick coax cable 500 meters Thin coax cable 185 meters 10BaseT 2 pairs Category-3 or better UTP 100 meters IEEE 802.3 10-Mbps Ethernet 2 multimode optical fibers 10Broad36 3 channels of a private CATV system 3600 meters

50 100BaseT 100BaseTX100BaseFX 100BaseT2 2 pairs Category-5 or better UTP 100 meters 2 multimode optical fibers 2000 meters (full duplex) 100BaseT4 4 pairs Category-3 or better UTP 100 meters IEEE 802.3 100-Mbps Ethernet 2 pairs Category-3 or better UTP 100 meters 100BaseX

51 1000BaseX 1000BaseSX1000BaseLX1000BaseT 2 multimode optical fibers using shortwave laser optics 550 meters 2 multimode or single-mode optical fibers using longwave laser optics 550 meters multimode, 5000 meters single-mode 4 pairs Category-5 UTP 100 meters 1000BaseCX 2 pairs STP 25 meters IEEE 802.3 Gigabit Ethernet

52 10GBase with Fiber Cabling 10GBaseLX410GBaseSR10GBaseER Multimode or single-mode optical fibers 300 meters multimode, 10 km single-mode Multimode optical fibers 300 meters Single-mode optical fibers 40 km 10GBaseLR Single-mode optical fibers 10 km IEEE 802.3 10-Gbps Ethernet

53 10GBase with Copper Cabling 10GBaseCX4 SFP+ Direct Attach XAUI 4-lane PCS 15 meters Twinax 10 meters 10GBaseT IEEE 802.3 10-Gbps Ethernet UTP or STP 100 meters

54 Metro Ethernet (MAN) Service offered by providers and carriers that traditionally had only classic WAN offerings The customer can use a standard Ethernet interface to reach a MAN or WAN The customer can add bandwidth as needed with a simple configuration change

55 Long-Reach Ethernet Enables the use of Ethernet over existing, unconditioned, voice-grade copper twisted-pair cabling Used to connect buildings and rooms within buildings – Rural areas – Old cities where upgrading cabling is impractical – Multi-unit structures such as hotels, apartment complexes, business complexes, and government agencies

56 Cisco’s EtherChannel Data Center Switch Wiring Closet Switch East Fiber Run 400 Mbps West Fiber Run 400 Mbps 800 Mbps EtherChannel

57 Internetworking Devices for Campus Networks Switches Routers Wireless access points Wireless bridges

58 Selection Criteria for Internetworking Devices The number of ports Processing speed The amount of memory Latency when device relays data Throughput when device relays data LAN and WAN technologies supported Media supported

59 More Selection Criteria for Internetworking Devices Cost Ease of configuration and management MTBF and MTTR Support for hot-swappable components Support for redundant power supplies Quality of technical support, documentation, and training Etc.

60 Summary Once the logical design is completed, the physical design can start A major task during physical design is selecting technologies and devices for campus networks – Media – Data-link layer technology – Internetworking devices Also, at this point, the logical topology design can be developed further by specifying cabling topologies

61 Review Questions What are three fundamental media types used in campus networks? What selection criteria can you use to select an Ethernet variety for your design customer? What selection criteria can you use when purchasing internetworking devices for your design customer? Some people think Metro Ethernet will replace traditional WANs. Do you agree or disagree and why?

62 This Week’s Outcomes Campus Cabling Ethernet Campus Network Design Example

63 Due this week 10-1 – Concept questions 7

64 Next week Read Chapter 11 in Top-Down Network Design 11-1 – Concept questions 8

65 Q & A Questions, comments, concerns?

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