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Top-Down Network Design Chapter Ten Selecting Technologies and Devices for Campus Networks Oppenheimer
continue Physical network design involved the selection of LAN and WAN technologies for campus and enterprise network design. Make choice on cabling, physical and data link layer protocols and internetworking devices. MMD©20132
Selecting Technologies and Devices We now know what the network will look like We also know what capabilities the network will need We are now ready to start picking out technologies and devices Chapter 10 has guidelines for campus networks 3MMD©2013
Campus Network Design Steps A campus network is a set of LAN segments and building networks in an area that is generally less than a mile in diameter. Develop a cabling plant design Select the types of cabling Select the data-link-layer technologies Select internetworking devices Meet with vendors 4MMD©2013
Cabling Plant Design Considerations Campus and building cabling topologies The types and lengths of cables between buildings Within buildings The location of telecommunications closets and cross- connect rooms The types and lengths of cables for vertical cabling between floors The types and lengths of cables for horizontal cabling within floors The types and lengths of cables for work-area cabling going from telecommunications closets to workstations 5MMD©2013
Centralized Versus Distributed Cabling Topologies A centralized cabling scheme terminates most or all of the cable runs in one area of the design environment. A star topology is an example of a centralized system. A distributed cabling scheme terminates cable runs throughout the design environment. Ring, bus, and tree topologies are examples of distributed systems. 6MMD©2013
Building –cabling topologies Within a building – either centralized or distributed can be used- depend on size of building. Small building – centralized scheme better, easy to manage, but does not scale. Bigger building – a distributed scheme. How to choose? ◦ Many LAN tech make an assumption that workstations are no more than 100m from a Telco closet where hubs/switches reside. ◦ For this reason, in a tall building with a large floors, a distributed topology is more appropriate. MMD©20137
Campus cabling topologies Cabling that connects buildings is exposed to more physical hazards. A distributed scheme is better since it’s offer avalailability than centralized scheme. The centralized will experience a loss of all interbuilding coomunication if the cable bundle between Building A and B were cut. Some area may need to have wireless technology – swapy area Disadvantages of distributed : hard to manage-changes of the system are more likely require that a technician to walk from one building to another. However if availability is the goal than this is better offer. MMD©20139
Centralized Campus Cabling Cable Bundle Building A Building BBuilding CBuilding D 10MMD©2013
Distributed Campus Cabling Building A Building BBuilding CBuilding D 11MMD©2013
Types of Media Used in Campus Networks 3 major types of cables: ◦ Shielded copper – STP, coax, twinaxial ◦ UTP ◦ Fiber-optic 12MMD©2013
continue widely used in Token Ring networks during 80/90s Now used Ethernet Ethernet use UTP and fiber-optic Coax popular in early LANs Now replace with UTP=10BASE-T Ethernet UTP –typical wiring in most building Least expensive Lowest transmission capabilities since it is subject to crosstalk, noise and electromagnetic interference. How to solve: limit the distance of cabling MMD©201313
UTP Categories Category 1. Used for voice communication Category 2. Used for voice and data, up to 4 Mbps Category 3. Used for data, up to 10 Mbps ◦ Required to have at least 3 twists per foot ◦ Standard cable for most telephone systems ◦ Also used in 10-Mbps Ethernet (10Base-T Ethernet) Category 4. Used for data, up to 16 Mbps ◦ Must also have at least 3 twists per foot as well as other features ◦ Used in Token Ring Category 5. Used for data, up to 100 Mbps ◦ Must have 3 twists per inch! Category 5e. Used in Gigabit Ethernet Category 6. Used in Gigabit Ethernet and future technologies 14MMD©2013
Continue.. New installation must be min cat 5e Fiber-optic cables should be used for vertical and horizontal wiring between Telco closets and between buildings. Fiber cabling is not affected by crosstalk, noise and electromagnetic interference. However difficult to install – incurred cost of deployment. MMD©201315
LAN Technologies Half-duplex Ethernet (becoming obsolete) Full-duplex Ethernet 10-Mbps Ethernet (becoming obsolete) 100-Mbps Ethernet 1000-Mbps (1-Gbps or Gigabit) Ethernet 10-Gbps Ethernet Metro Ethernet Long Range Ethernet (LRE) Cisco’s EtherChannel 16MMD©2013
IEEE Mbps Ethernet 10 Mbps Ethernet 10Base5 10Base2 Thick coax cable 500 meters Thin coax cable 185 meters 10BaseT 2 pairs Category-3 or better UTP 100 meters 2 multimode optical fibers 10Broad36 10BaseF 3 channels of a private CATV system 3600 meters 17MMD©2013
100BaseT 100BaseTX 100BaseFX 100BaseT2 2 pairs Category-5 or better UTP 100 meters 2 multimode optical fibers 2000 meters (full duplex) 100BaseT4 4 pairs Category-3 or better UTP 100 meters IEEE Mbps Ethernet 2 pairs Category-3 or better UTP 100 meters 100BaseX 18MMD©2013
1000BaseX 1000BaseSX 1000BaseLX 1000BaseT 2 multimode optical fibers using shortwave laser optics 550 meters 2 multimode or single-mode optical fibers using longwave laser optics 550 meters multimode, 5000 meters single-mode 4 pairs Category-5 UTP 100 meters 1000BaseCX 2 pairs STP 25 meters IEEE Gigabit Ethernet 19MMD©2013
10GBaseX 10GBaseLX4 10GBaseS 10GBaseE Multimode or single- mode optical fibers 300 meters multimode, 10 km single-mode Multimode optical fibers 300 meters Single-mode optical fibers 40 km 10GBaseL Single-mode optical fibers 10 km IEEE Gbps Ethernet 20MMD©2013
Metro Ethernet Service offered by providers and carriers that traditionally had only classic WAN offerings The customer can use a standard Ethernet interface to reach a MAN or WAN The customer can add bandwidth as needed with a simple configuration change 21MMD©2013
Long-Reach Ethernet Enables the use of Ethernet over existing, unconditioned, voice-grade copper twisted-pair cabling Used to connect buildings and rooms within buildings ◦ Rural areas ◦ Old cities where upgrading cabling is impractical ◦ Multi-unit structures such as hotels, apartment complexes, business complexes, and government agencies 22MMD©2013
Internetworking Devices for Campus Networks Hubs (becoming obsolete) Switches Routers Wireless access points Wireless bridges 23MMD©2013
Selection Criteria for Internetworking Devices The number of ports Processing speed The amount of memory Latency when device relays data Throughput when device relays data LAN and WAN technologies supported Media supported 24MMD©2013
More Selection Criteria for Internetworking Devices Cost Ease of configuration and management MTBF and MTTR Support for hot-swappable components Support for redundant power supplies Quality of technical support, documentation, and training Etc. 25MMD©2013
Wireless Media IEEE a, b, and g Laser Microwave Cellular Satellite 26MMD©2013
Summary Once the logical design is completed, the physical design can start A major task during physical design is selecting technologies and devices for campus networks ◦ Media ◦ Data-link layer technology ◦ Internetworking devices Also, at this point, the logical topology design can be developed further by specifying cabling topologies 27MMD©2013
Review Questions What are three fundamental media types used in campus networks? What selection criteria can you use to select an Ethernet variety for your design customer? What selection criteria can you use when purchasing internetworking devices for your design customer? Some people think Metro Ethernet will replace traditional WANs. Do you agree or disagree and why? 28MMD©2013
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