Presentation on theme: "Psychological Disorders. I. General Information A. Definitions a. Atypical: not typical b. Disturbing: troubles others emotionally or mentally "— Presentation transcript:
I. General Information A. Definitions a. Atypical: not typical b. Disturbing: troubles others emotionally or mentally c. Maladaptive: harmful to one’s ability to function d. Unjustifiable: no good reason for behavior or thought
B. DSM-IV Diagnostic and Statistical Manual Axis I: Is a Clinical Syndrome present? Axis II: Is a Personality Disorder or Mental Retardation present? Axis III: Is a General Medical Condition, such as diabetes, hypertension, or arthritis, also present? Axis IV: Are Psychosocial or Environmental Problems, such as school or housing issues, also present? Axis V: What is the Global Assessment of this person’s functioning?
II. Anxiety Disorders A. Panic Disorders 1. Characteristics: person experiences sudden episodes (usually lasting a few minutes) of intense dread/fear 2. Non-specific: No particular trigger
B. Phobia Disorders 1. Phobia: irrational fear that disrupts behavior. 2. Specific: only the phobia triggers response
C. Generalized Anxiety 1. Generalized Anxiety disorder: person is continually tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal 2. Very few people seek treatment because they think it is just a part of their personality
D. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder 1. Obsession: repetitive thoughts 2. Compulsions: repetitive behaviors 3. OCD: anxiety disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts &/or actions 4. Causes: anxiety, stress, genetic factors (autism? Link in strep throat?)
E. Stress Disorders 1. PTSD: characterized by haunting memories, nightmares, social withdrawal, jumpy anxiety, &/or insomnia that lingers for four weeks or more after a traumatic experience
2. Acute Stress Disorder: development of severe anxiety, dissociative, and other symptoms that occurs within one month after exposure to an extreme traumatic stressor
III. Somatoform Disorders A. Conversion Disorders 1. Definition: physical symptoms that resemble those of a neurological disorder develop. The symptoms are triggered by mental factors such as conflicts or other stresses. 2. US Naval Academy: entered with 20/20 vision, many leave with blurred vision.
B. Hypochondria 1. Definition: preoccupying fear of having a serious illness 2. Causes: no known causes, but… could be a form of OCD. 3. Faking it??? True hypochondriacs are not faking it.
Dissociative Disorders Dissociative Disorders A. Dissociative Amnesia (psychogenic) Definition: person blocks out certain information, usually associated with a stressful or traumatic event, leaving him or her unable to remember important personal information.
B. Fugue 1. Definition: People with dissociative fugue temporarily lose their sense of personal identity and impulsively wander or travel away from their homes or places of work. 2. Cause: linked to severe stress, which might be the result of traumatic events— such as war, abuse, accidents, disasters or extreme violence—that the person has experienced or witnessed. example example
C. Dissociative Identity 1. Definition: two or more distinct identities that alternately control the person’s behavior, with memory impairment across the different personality states. 2. Roles: Each personality has its own voice and mannerisms, and the original one typically denies any awareness of the other(s) 3. Causes: an innate ability to dissociate easily repeated episodes of severe physical or sexual abuse in childhood example example
V. Mood Disorders A. Major Depression 1. Definition: two or more weeks of significantly depressed moods, feelings of worthlessness, and diminished interest or pleasure in most activities.
B. Mania 1. Definition: mood disorder marked by a hyperactive, wildly optimistic state.
C. Bipolar Disorder (manic depression) 1. Definition: person alternates between the hopelessness of depression and the overexcited state of mania. 2. Causes: possibly genetics or stress
VI. Schizophrenia **Disorganized thoughts** A. Types 1. Paranoid: delusions or hallucinations often of persecution or grandiosity 2. Catatonic: Immobility, extreme negativism, &/or parrotlike repeating of another’s speech or movements 3. Disorganized: disorganized speech or behavior, flat or inappropriate emotion 4. Undifferentiated or Residual: withdrawal after delusions or hallucinations disappear
B. Perspectives on Schizophrenia 1. Psychological: stress induced, possible bad family circumstances. 2. Biological: Ventricles are larger (more fluid, less brain tissue) 3. Multifactorial: Biological predisposition and stressful situation triggers it.
MRI scans of 28-year-old male identical twins showing the enlarged brain ventricles in the twin with schizophrenia (right) compared to his well brother (left).
VII. Personality Disorders A. Antisocial: exhibits a lack of conscience from wrongdoing, even toward friends & family. (usually a man) B. Borderline: switch moods quickly/abruptly. C. Dependent: Require others approval for everything. Afraid of abandonment.
VIII. Diathesis: Stress Model: explains all disorders as the cause being a mixture of biological predisposition and stress induced.