2Aims & ObjetivesTo provide knowledge of anger, aggression and violenceHow to attempt to de-escalate the situation and deal with it appropriatelyHow verbal and non verbal communication can be used to prevent escalationRecognize one’s own safety and remove from potentially volatile situation.
3Anger: Feeling or emotion. A response to something that has happened.Can lead to aggression.
4Aggression: Action or behaviour. Usually intended to hurtVerbal or physical
5Violence: Serious physical attacks. May be directed at objects or people.
6Effects of Adrenaline Increase in Heart rate Increase in Respiration rateIncrease in muscle tensionIncrease in blood sugarPupils dilateGoosebumpsIncrease in metabolic rate
7Adrenaline Fight: body defends self by standing and fighting Flight: body responding to a burst of energyFright: confused, unable to respond immediately.
8De-escalation Techniques Calming (Self Awareness)Calming (Awareness of Others)Reaching (Building Bridges)Controlling the situation
9Calming (Self Awareness) Voice:Steady, calm and clearAppropriate LanguageEyes:Regular eye contactPosition/PostureUnconfrontingNon-threatening, relaxedFace:Show attentiveness, nods to signal interest.
11How we communicate. Body language 55% of meaning is in facial expression and body language.Tone38% of meaning is in the way the words are said.Words7% of meaning is in the words that are spoken.(source:Mehrabian A. (1971) Silent messages)
12Calming (awareness of others) 1. Make sure they know you are listeningListen for feelings, concerns, intentions.2. Resist arguments3. Be Yourself4. Watch for:Relaxation of facial musclesSteadier breathingChange in tone of voice/posture
13Cultural awareness.Some people will not make eye contact when talking.Some people will not shake hands as touching is not accepted.Invading someone's personal space is accepted and common practice in some cultures.Some females may not even communicate without a chaperone or a husband present.
14Building Bridges Make a gift of: Sit down A drink Don’t patronise Ask questions you need to askEnsure they know the reason whyLet them ask you questions-only answer if you are sure of the answers.Use simple, straightforward language
15Controlling the Situations Be realisticNo false promisesWhat is achievable and what is notBe HonestTake each issue separatelyOffer alternativesDo not blameDo not hurry
16When communication fails! When dealing with other people, we must be continually alert to what is going on around us. A situation can change very rapidly. A simple strategy for coping with conflict situations includes the following actions:Be awareAssessBe alert; constantly observe what is going on around you.Acknowledge that situations can change rapidly and will call for regular assessment.PlanPrepare for unforeseen circumstances.
17Warning and danger signs. When a person is getting angry and they feel they need to exert their presence verbally, they will present withWARNING SIGNSIf you can recognise these, you may be able to prevent the onset ofDANGER SIGNSThese are the bodies natural reaction in preparation for physical violence.
18Warning Signs Prolonged eye contact Facial Colour Darkens Head Back Standing TallLarge MovementsBreathing acceleratesGround kicking
19Danger Signs Fist clenching Facial colour pales Head drops Body lowers Lips tighten over teethHands come above waist
20Fight or FlightFlight should be your preferred option, and is the safer. Never stay in a situation in which you feel uncomfortable: remember, even if your job role means that you work with a ‘duty of care’, this duty of care starts with you.
21If fight is your only option: Be aware of your limitations and legal requirements.Attempting/achieving three aims would fulfil the requirements of law:TemporiseDisengageSome physical withdrawal
22PLANP = Proportionate – am I using the right level of force? (Don’t use a sledgehammer to crack a nut)L = Legal – am I covered by law to do what I’m doing?A =Accountable – am I accountable for my actions? Can I justify what I did, how I did it and why?N =Necessary – was the action taken necessary?
23LawIn Common law it is the person’s right to defend themselves from attacks and to act as a defence to others and prevent a crime.Section 3, Criminal Law Act 1967A person may use force as is REASONABLE in the circumstances in the prevention of crime, or in effecting or assisting in the lawful arrest of offenders or suspected offenders or persons unlawfully at large’.