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Ewan OConnor, Robin Hogan, Anthony Illingworth, Nicolas Gaussiat Radar/lidar observations of boundary layer clouds.

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Presentation on theme: "Ewan OConnor, Robin Hogan, Anthony Illingworth, Nicolas Gaussiat Radar/lidar observations of boundary layer clouds."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ewan OConnor, Robin Hogan, Anthony Illingworth, Nicolas Gaussiat Radar/lidar observations of boundary layer clouds

2 Overview Radar and lidar can measure boundary layer clouds at high resolution: –Cloud boundaries - radar and lidar –LWP – microwave radiometer –LWC – cloud boundaries and LWP Cloudnet – compare forecast models and observations –3 remote-sensing sites (currently), 6 models (currently) –Cloud fraction, liquid water content statistics Microphysical profiles: –Water vapour mixing ratio - Raman lidar –LWC - dual-wavelength radar –Drizzle properties - Doppler radar and lidar –Drop concentration and size – radar and lidar

3 Vertically pointing radar and lidar Radar: Z~D 6 Sensitive to larger particles (drizzle, rain) Lidar: ~D 2 Sensitive to small particles (droplets, aerosol)

4 Statistics - liquid water clouds 2 year database Use lidar to detect liquid cloud base –Low liquid water clouds present 23% of the time (above 400 m) Summer: 25% Winter: 20% Use radar to determine presence of drizzle –46% of clouds detected by lidar contain occasional large droplets Summer: 42% Winter: 52 %

5 Dual wavelength microwave radiometer –Brightness temperatures -> Liquid water path –Improved technique – Nicolas Gaussiat Use lidar to determine whether clear sky or not Adjust coefficients to account for instrument drift Removes offset for low LWP LWP - initial LWP - lidar corrected

6 LWC - Scaled adiabatic method –Use lidar/radar to determine cloud boundaries –Use model to estimate adiabatic gradient of lwc –Scale adiabatic lwc profile to match lwp from radiometers http://www.met.rdg.ac.uk/radar/cloudnet/quicklooks/

7 Compare measured lwp to adiabatic lwp obtain dilution coefficient Dilution coefficient versus depth of cloud

8 Stratocumulus liquid water content Problem of using radar to infer liquid water content: –Very different moments of a bimodal size distribution: LWC dominated by ~10 m cloud droplets Radar reflectivity often dominated by drizzle drops ~200 m An alternative is to use dual-frequency radar –Radar attenuation proportional to LWC, increases with frequency –Therefore rate of change with height of the difference in 35- GHz and 94-GHz yields LWC with no size assumptions necessary –Each 1 dB difference corresponds to an LWP of ~120 g m -2 Can be difficult to implement in practice –Need very precise Z measurements Typically several minutes of averaging is required Need linear response throughout dynamic range of both radars

9

10 Drizzle below cloud Doppler radar and lidar - 4 observables (OConnor et al. 2005) Radar/lidar ratio provides information on particle size

11 Drizzle below cloud –Retrieve three components of drizzle DSD (N, D, μ). –Can then calculate LWC, LWF and vertical air velocity, w.

12 Drizzle below cloud –Typical cell size is about 2-3 km –Updrafts correlate well with liquid water flux

13 Profiles of lwc – no drizzle Examine radar/lidar profiles - retrieve LWC, N, D

14 Profiles of lwc – no drizzle 260 cm -3 90 cm -3 80 cm -3 Consistency shown between LWP estimates.

15 Profiles of lwc – no drizzle Cloud droplet sizes <12μm no drizzle present Cloud droplet sizes 18 μm drizzle present Agrees with Tripoli & Cotton (1980) critical size threshold

16 Conclusion Relevant Sc properties can be measured using remote sensing; –Ideally utilise radar, lidar and microwave radiometer measurements together. –Cloudnet project provides yearly/monthly statistics for cloud fraction and liquid water content including comparisons between observations and models. –Soon - number concentration and size, drizzle properties. –Humidity structure, turbulence. –Satellite measurements A-Train (Cloudsat + Calipso + Aqua) EarthCARE IceSat

17 Importance of Stratocumulus Most common cloud type globally Global coverage 26% –Ocean 34% –Land 18% Average net radiative effect is about –65 W m -2 Cooling effect on climate Mean annual low cloud amount – ISCCP

18 Cloud Parameters Use radar and lidar to provide vertical profiles of: –Cloud droplet size distribution (N, mean D, broad/narrow) –Drizzle droplet size distribution (N, mean D, broad/narrow) Relate drizzle to cloud N Is stratocumulus adiabatic? Entrainment rates

19 Data

20 Drizzle-free stratocumulus Z = ND 6 & LWC ND 3 Z LWC 2 /N Assume adiabatic ascent and constant N LWC increases linearly with height (z) If we know T and p dLWC /dz Adiabatic profile: Z should vary as z 2 Assume dLWC /dz is a constant, a LWC(z) = az Z(z) (az) 2 / N

21 Aircraft data - ACE 2 Brenguier et al. (2000) 1005 UTC 1545 UTC Reflectivity profiles

22 Refined technique Allow dilution from adiabatic profile of LWC Z(z) k (az) 2 / N ad LWC(z) = k LWC ad (z) N = k N ad D(z) = D ad (z) N ad

23 Plots of N High N, small D low Z N ad = 264 cm -3

24 Plots of N N ad = 91 cm -3

25 Plots of N N ad = 82 cm -3

26 Presence of drizzle can lead to an overestimate of N an overestimate of LWC (and LWP)

27

28 Conclusion Consistency shown between LWP estimates from this technique, and from microwave radiometers. Additional techniques to investigate Sc are also available: –Doppler radar/lidar – Drizzle properties (OConnor et al. 2004) –Dual wavelength radar – LWC profile (Gaussiat et al.) –Doppler spectra Raman humidity measurements – WV structure, mixed layer depths Aircraft verification? CloudNet – 3 years, 3 sites, provide climatology of Sc properties

29 Dual wavelength microwave radiometer –Brightness temperatures -> Liquid water path –Improved technique – Nicolas Gaussiat Use lidar to determine whether clear sky or not Adjust coefficients to account for instrument drift Removes offset for low LWP LWP - initial LWP - lidar corrected

30 LWC - Scaled adiabatic method –Use lidar/radar to determine cloud boundaries –Use model to estimate adiabatic gradient of lwc –Scale adiabatic lwc profile to match lwp from radiometers http://www.met.rdg.ac.uk/radar/cloudnet/quicklooks/

31 Compare measured lwp to adiabatic lwp obtain dilution coefficient Dilution coefficient versus depth of cloud

32 Stratocumulus liquid water content Problem of using radar to infer liquid water content: –Very different moments of a bimodal size distribution: LWC dominated by ~10 m cloud droplets Radar reflectivity often dominated by drizzle drops ~200 m An alternative is to use dual-frequency radar –Radar attenuation proportional to LWC, increases with frequency –Therefore rate of change with height of the difference in 35- GHz and 94-GHz yields LWC with no size assumptions necessary –Each 1 dB difference corresponds to an LWP of ~120 g m -2 Can be difficult to implement in practice –Need very precise Z measurements Typically several minutes of averaging is required Need linear response throughout dynamic range of both radars

33

34 Drizzle below cloud Doppler radar and lidar - 4 observables (OConnor et al. 2005) Radar/lidar ratio provides information on particle size

35 Drizzle below cloud –Retrieve three components of drizzle DSD (N, D, μ). –Can then calculate LWC, LWF and vertical air velocity, w.

36 Drizzle below cloud –Typical cell size is about 2-3 km –Updrafts correlate well with liquid water flux

37 Profiles of lwc – no drizzle Examine radar/lidar profiles - retrieve LWC, N, D

38 Profiles of lwc – no drizzle 260 cm -3 90 cm -3 80 cm -3 Consistency shown between LWP estimates.

39 Profiles of lwc – no drizzle Cloud droplet sizes <12μm no drizzle present Cloud droplet sizes 18 μm drizzle present Agrees with Tripoli & Cotton (1980) critical size threshold


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