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ORIGIN OF AIR POLLUTION CONTROL REGULATING PRIMARY EMISSIONS FROM VICTORIAN TIMES.

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Presentation on theme: "ORIGIN OF AIR POLLUTION CONTROL REGULATING PRIMARY EMISSIONS FROM VICTORIAN TIMES."— Presentation transcript:

1 ORIGIN OF AIR POLLUTION CONTROL REGULATING PRIMARY EMISSIONS FROM VICTORIAN TIMES

2 CONTROLLING AIR POLLUTION l Legislative Extramurality, zoning, timing Fuel controls l Technical Chimney heights Combustion controls – burn your own smoke Filters, traps etc

3 BURN YOUR OWN SMOKE l Benjamin Franklin advised Boulton and Watt l Smoke as waste fuel (lost profit) l Early attempts to control engine smoke ~1800 Manchester

4 LANCASHIRE BOILER …and its skilled operation RAKE IT OVER

5 EMERGING SANITARY ACTS

6 19th C PUBLIC HEALTH REFORM l Huge transitions - portrayed heroically as individual determination: e.g in UK Chadwick, Farrar l Preoccupation with sewers, housing, but smoke clauses l Focussed on key professionals Sanitary or smoke inspectors weak and subordinate to Medical Officer...focus on organic disease

7 SANITARY OFFICERS l 1823 early inspectors in Manchester Police Commissioners rarely found attentive and sober inspectors l Town Improvement Clauses Act 1847 authority to appoint a Medical Officer of Health and an Inspector of Nuisance l 1870's IoN and MOoH- throughout the country

8 INSPECTOR OF NUISANCE l Inspectors point out of nuisances and maintain a journal report to Health Committee l Day to day implementation of sanitary policy l 1880's councils IoN a good man endowed with common sense l Lack of status and requisite skills attracted men who had failed in other walks of life PROFESSIONALIZATION P. BRIMBLECOMBE Origins of smoke inspection in Britain (circa 1900) Applied Environmental Science & Public Health 1, (2003) P. BRIMBLECOMBE Emergence of the sanitary inspector, The Journal of the Royal Society for the Promotion of Health, (2003)

9 PROFESSIONALIZATION l Prof. Corfield 1885 lecture on Frontinus l Blyth 1890 appropriate examination and assistantship l MacMahon 1899 status of a sanitary officer ought to be that of a professional l Smoke inspectors l Specialization key characteristic of the development of Public Health in the late 19 th C

10 WOMEN AND UNIFORMS l Women gain equal number of certificates ~1900 l Concern about clothing long dresses in abattoirs ( ) buttons not brass (militaristic?) l Role beyond factories: could not climb ladders l Marriage and family

11 EXAMINATION SUCCESS Male 62% Female 70% only 3 fails! M F M/F M F M F

12 BEDFORD COLLEGE Ladies College in Bedford Square l l Sanitary Course criticized for being too theoretical l l Taught microscopy and bacteriology! Models of hygienic sanitary appliances, England, 1895

13 NB FAMOUS BEDFORD GRADUATES from SANITARY INSPECTION COURSE l Deputy Chief Factories Inspector Hilda Martindale l Head of Hygiene Battersea Polytechnic Hilda Bideleaux l Head of the School of the Domestic Economy Tokyo Sumi Miyakawa (Japan) l First woman factory inspector/MP Kerstin Hesselgren (Sweden ) KERSTINHESSELGREN

14 WOMEN AND HEALTH VISITING l Were not allowed to belong to Sanitary Inspectors Association l Health visitor role probably led to a reduction of status in early 20 th C

15 ICONOGRAPHY

16 COAL SMOKE ABATEMENT SOCIETY l Sir William Blake Richmond also Octavia Hill l NSAC, NSCA, NSCA&EP, EP(UK)

17 DEVELOPING ROLES IN LOCAL GOVERNMENT l Sanitary Inspectors Association of Public Sanitary Inspectors l Sanitary Officers 1921 Sanitary Officer formally recognised on passage of the Public Health (Officers) Act l 1950s- Public Health Inspector l 1970s- Environmental Health Officer

18 POST WWI l Burning Bings- advocacy l Taylor, John ( ) Smoke Menace (1937) l Gas and electricity

19 LO-NOx BURNER l Key effect of temperature on the formation of NOx. l Surface combustion/radiant tile burners produce levels 60-70% less NOx. l John Joyce John Joyce of Bowin Technology, Australia, pioneered use high temperature steel mesh

20 LOW NO X FURNACE Controlling temperature: mixing of fuel and air is suppressed at the initial stage of combustion, and combustion progresses gently. SURF THOSE SOUND WAVES! AIR FUEL

21 SCRUBBING l Fine stream of water absorbs waste gases l Expensive as you need an alkaline solution to absorb SO 2 2NaOH + SO 2 Na 2 SO 3 + H 2 O

22 NEW ZEALAND SUGAR COMPANY CHELSEA WORKS IN AUCKLAND

23 SEAWATER AS A SCRUBBING FLUID l Mid 20 th C used the alkalinity of seawater as a cheap alternative l 2NaHCO 3 + SO 2 Na 2 SO 3 + H 2 O + CO 2 l l But lowers plume buoyancy CHIMNEY HEIGHT

24 SCRUBBING WITH LIMESTONE CaCO 3(s) + SO 2(g) CaSO 3(s) + CO 2(g) Can oxidize calcium sulphite to gypsum CaSO 3(s) + ½O 2(g) + 2H 2 O (l) CaSO 4 ·2H 2 O (s) Problem is that very large quantities involved… s=solid g = gas l=liquid

25 WELLMAN-LORD PROCESS Regenerative In scrubber Na 2 SO 3(aq) + SO 2(g) 2NaHSO 3(aq ) In Heater 2NaHSO 3(aq ) Na 2 SO 3(aq) + SO 2(g) SO 2 - is converted to elemental sulphur, sulphuric acid or liquid SO 2. aq=aqueous g = gas l=liquid

26 FUELS l Methanol – logic of a new fuel for automobiles l Low volatility fuels l Zero Pollution Vehicles l Hybrid power cars Leonardo di Caprio, Billy Crystal, Harrison Ford and Susan Sarandon

27 ALTERNATE FUELS g/mileH/CCONO x gasoline CNG LPG Data gathered in the late 1980s…

28 GASES – LPG, NPG l Low molecular weight compounds l Sealed in a pressurised tank l Wide adoption and especially for fleets of buses

29 CATALYTIC CONVERTERS l Three-way catalytic converter: platinum or rhodium on a ceramic or metallic base. Oxidises carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide and hydrocarbons to carbon dioxide and water and/or reduces oxides of nitrogen to nitrogen and oxygen gas. l Conflicting chemical reactions require a lambda probe to measure the residual oxygen in exhaust and adjust engine fuel-air ratio l l Works at a fairly high temperature, so cold starts or stop start driving are a problem.

30 FUEL VOLATILITY AND REFORMULATION l Summertime commercial gasoline volatility reduced because VOC drives smog chemistry l Reformulated gasoline (RFG) is gasoline blended to burn cleaner and reduce smog- precursors, particularly carbon monoxide l l RFG uses oxygenates MTBE and ethanol. l l Only mandated in severe ozone areas

31 ASIA – MOTORCYCLES as in SOURCES Lecture l Traditionally 2-stroke engines lots of organic matter and particles – with organic material l Electric power l Air power

32 LEAN BURN Mitsubishi Vertical Vortex lean-burn engine can achieve complete combustion with an air-fuel ratio as 25:1 whereas conventional engines require 14.7:1 and give 3% better fuel economy at 40km/h l l Engines mix more air with the fuel when full power is not needed, resulting in better fuel economy. l l Engines fail strict NOx emission standards l l Lean mixtures wont ignite easily: use stratified- charge approach and air-fuel ratio varies through cylinder


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