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A centre of expertise in data curation and preservation London :: ARK Group Workshop: Archiving the Web :: 28 Sept 2006 Funded by: This work is licensed.

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Presentation on theme: "A centre of expertise in data curation and preservation London :: ARK Group Workshop: Archiving the Web :: 28 Sept 2006 Funded by: This work is licensed."— Presentation transcript:

1 a centre of expertise in data curation and preservation London :: ARK Group Workshop: Archiving the Web :: 28 Sept 2006 Funded by: This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.5 UK: Scotland License. To view a copy of this license, visit sa/2.5/scotland/ ; or, (b) send a letter to Creative Commons, 543 Howard Street, 5th Floor, San Francisco, California, 94105, USA.http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc- sa/2.5/scotland/ Archival Perspectives on Web Archiving Maureen Pennock Digital Curation Centre UKOLN, University of Bath

2 a centre of expertise in data curation and preservation London :: ARK Group Workshop: Archiving the Web :: 28 Sept 2006 Overview Introduction to archival records and web archiving Authenticity in archived web resources Sample policies and guidelines Fundamentals Questions

3 a centre of expertise in data curation and preservation London :: ARK Group Workshop: Archiving the Web :: 28 Sept 2006 Introduction Web Archiving or Archiving the Web is now a major and global area of activity Archiving and managing digital records is also a major area of activity Records often posted on web sites and intranets: these may also need archiving BUT … there is a difference in approaches between archiving websites and archiving web-based records

4 a centre of expertise in data curation and preservation London :: ARK Group Workshop: Archiving the Web :: 28 Sept 2006 What is a Record? BS ISO definition: any information that is created, received and maintained as evidence and information by an organisation or person in pursuance of legal obligations or in the transaction of business Evidence of a transaction Anything that: documents a working transaction between two or more parties documents the mission and goals of an organisation was created or received in the course of carrying out the mission and goals of an organisation

5 a centre of expertise in data curation and preservation London :: ARK Group Workshop: Archiving the Web :: 28 Sept 2006 What is an Archive? Archives: …documents, irrespective of form, medium or age, intended for long-term preservation because of their continuing value. (BS ) Web Archiving: Collections of websites or website content that may or may not be intended for long-term preservation Commonly (but not always) carried out by libraries Archive and Archiving can mean different things to different people

6 a centre of expertise in data curation and preservation London :: ARK Group Workshop: Archiving the Web :: 28 Sept 2006 Archival Records & Web Resources Web sites can contain uniquely available informative records Users may act or take decisions based on this information, with important consequences Records of business transactions Accountability & transparency To funding bodies To stakeholders For legal reasons Historical and culturally valuable Not all web site content is a unique record Records must be identified and selected – collaborative task

7 a centre of expertise in data curation and preservation London :: ARK Group Workshop: Archiving the Web :: 28 Sept 2006 Examples of web site records Types of records available: Policies Advice Guidelines Procedures Organisational information Publications? …. Records can also be created over the internet, using transactional systems such as web-based forms. Can be in a wide array of formats, eg Static web pages Uploaded files Databases Accompanying metadata Documenting resource Documenting actions Documenting changes Documenting publication details…

8 a centre of expertise in data curation and preservation London :: ARK Group Workshop: Archiving the Web :: 28 Sept 2006 Authenticity (1) That a record is what it purports to be and is complete is all essential respects Not necessarily a given; proof may be required Can be difficult to ascertain in digital records Concept of original record has lost meaning Context and provenance not easy to identify Records often freely created and managed Preservation activity leads to changes in record Is this acceptable? To what extent?

9 a centre of expertise in data curation and preservation London :: ARK Group Workshop: Archiving the Web :: 28 Sept 2006 Authenticity (2)* What this means in practice: Must be demonstrably reliable as proof Creation and capture Metadata and context Ownership/responsibility Version control Cataloguing standards Records management approach goes some way to addressing these concerns * Lizzie Richmond, IWMW 2006

10 a centre of expertise in data curation and preservation London :: ARK Group Workshop: Archiving the Web :: 28 Sept 2006 Archiving web resources/sites Two main models Harvesting model Used by national and research libraries, university special collections (e.g., DACHS) and the Internet Archive Records management model Addresses the issues raised earlier May be more appropriate for specific institutional records Sample guidelines and policies available

11 a centre of expertise in data curation and preservation London :: ARK Group Workshop: Archiving the Web :: 28 Sept 2006 The National Archives (UK) Managing web resources (December 2001) ERM toolkit for government agencies Practical steps for active records management and sustainability Useful identification of web-based records Scenarios How websites differ from other records Management control mechanisms Model action plan (incl. risk assessment) Sustainability Website:

12 a centre of expertise in data curation and preservation London :: ARK Group Workshop: Archiving the Web :: 28 Sept 2006 U.S. National Archives (NARA) Guidance on Managing Web Records (Jan 2005) Provides an initial, high-level framework to manage both content records on agency web sites and records documenting web site operations Four main sections General background, responsibilities and requirements Managing web records – step by step guide and risks Scheduling web records Appendices Website:

13 a centre of expertise in data curation and preservation London :: ARK Group Workshop: Archiving the Web :: 28 Sept 2006 National Archives of Australia A Policy for keeping records of web-based activity (January 2001) Provides clear directions to Commonwealth agencies to implement mechanisms for creating, managing and retaining web-based records of value Guidelines (March 2001) Challenges and responsibilities Types of web-based resources Fundamentals of good record-keeping Assessing risk – factors to consider Strategic & technical options Storage & preservation - issues & strategies Determining the best option

14 a centre of expertise in data curation and preservation London :: ARK Group Workshop: Archiving the Web :: 28 Sept 2006 Managing web-based records Fundamentals: Information Audit and Risk Assessment A systematic approach Develop policy Formulate plan for capture, maintenance, and preservation Implement appropriate website maintenance procedures Assign and document responsibilities Identify records Determine retention requirements Capture records into recordkeeping system Add metadata Transfer content and metadata into archive as appropriate * Based on NAA Guidelines for Archiving Web Resources

15 a centre of expertise in data curation and preservation London :: ARK Group Workshop: Archiving the Web :: 28 Sept 2006 Thank You Questions? Maureen Pennock Join the DCC Associates Network at (its free!)


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