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Hearing and Deafness 1. Anatomy & physiology Chris Darwin Web site for lectures, lecture notes and filtering lab:

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Presentation on theme: "Hearing and Deafness 1. Anatomy & physiology Chris Darwin Web site for lectures, lecture notes and filtering lab:"— Presentation transcript:

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2 Hearing and Deafness 1. Anatomy & physiology Chris Darwin Web site for lectures, lecture notes and filtering lab: look under: "Teaching material for students" "Perception & Attention"

3 Protection Impedance match Capture; Amplify mid-freqs Vertical direction coding Frequency analysis Transduction Outer, middle & inner ear

4 Middle ear structure

5 Stapedius reflex

6 Conductive hearing loss Sounds dont get into cochlea Middle ear problems Helped by surgery and by amplification

7 Protection Impedance match Capture; Amplify mid-freqs Vertical direction coding Frequency analysis Transduction Outer, middle & inner ear

8 Cochlea

9 Cochlea cross-section

10 Travelling wave on basilar membrane sorts sounds by frequency

11 Reponse of basilar membrane to sine waves Each point on the membrane responds best to a different frequency: high freq at base, low at apex. amadeus praat

12 Organ of Corti

13 Inner hair cell

14 Hair Cell Stereocilia

15 Auditory nerve innervation OHC (2) spiral afferent (green) medial efferent (red) IHC (1) radial afferent (blue) lateral efferent (pink)

16 Auditory nerve rate-intensity functions

17 Phase Locking of Inner Hair Cells Auditory nerve connected to inner hair cell tends to fire at the same phase of the stimulating waveform.

18 Phase-locking

19 Inner vs Outer Hair Cells

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21 OHC movement Passive No OHC movement Active With OHC movement

22 OHC activity Increases sensitivity (lowers thresholds) Increases selectivity (reduces bandwidth of auditory filter) Gives ear a logarithmic (non-linear) amplitude response Produce Oto-acoustic emissions OHCs are relatively more active for quiet sounds than for loud sounds. They only amplify sounds that have the characteristic frequency of their place.

23 Conductive vs Sensori-neural deafness Becomes linear, so No combination tones Or two-tone suppression Mostly a combination of OHC and IHC damage

24 Auditory nerve frequency-threshold curves

25 Auditory tuning curves Healthy ear Inner hair-cell damage

26 Outer-hair cell damage

27 BM becomes linear without OHCs (furosemide injection)

28 Amplification greater and tuning more selective at low levels Robles, L. and Ruggero, M. A. (2001). "Mechanics of the mammalian cochlea," Physiological Review 81,

29 Normal auditory non-linearities Normal loudness growth (follows Webers Law) Combination tones 880->1320 Two-tone suppression Oto-acoustic emissions


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