Download presentation

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Published byWendy Countess Modified about 1 year ago

1

2
Hearing and Deafness 2. Ear as a frequency analyzer Chris Darwin

3
Frequency: 100-Hz Sine Wave Time (s) Waveform Amplitude against time Spectrum Amplitude against frequency Hz amp frequency

4
Frequency: 500-Hz Sine Wave Waveform Amplitude against time Spectrum Amplitude against frequency amp frequency amp frequency500 Time (s)

5
Amplitude: 500-Hz Sine Wave Spectrum Amplitude against frequency amp frequency amp frequency500 Time (s) Time (s)

6
Phase: 500-Hz Sine Wave The amplitude spectrum does not show phase amp frequency amp frequency500 sine cosine

7
Phase Locking of Inner Hair Cells Auditory nerve connected to inner hair cell tends to fire at the same phase of the stimulating waveform.

8
Phase-locking

9
adding sine waves 1 amp frequency 1 amp frequency 1 amp frequency 1 amp frequency Spectrum of Sum

10
100-Hz fundamental Complex Wave Waveform Amplitude against time Spectrum Amplitude against frequency Time (s) amp frequency amp frequency500

11
Adding nine sine waves Frequency Time Frequency Time Spectrogram5s

12
The linear vs log scales Linear equal distances represent equal differences Log equal distances represent equal ratios e.g. Piano keyboard frequencies Octave = doubling of frequency basilar membrane has log repn of frequency

13
deciBel (dB) scale Sound A is x dB more intense than sound B when: x = 10*log10 (energy of A / energy of B) or x = 20*log10 (amp of A / amp of B) So if A is 20 watts and B is 10 watts x = 10*log10 (20/10) = 10*0.3 = 3dB You can usually just hear a difference of 1dB (jnd)

14
Bandpass filtering (narrow) Time (s) amp frequency amp frequency500 Time (s) amp frequency amp frequency500

15
Bandpass filtering (wide) Time (s) amp frequency amp frequency500 1 amp frequency amp frequency500

16
Beats 1 amp frequency amp frequency500 Repetition rate is the difference in frequency between the two sine-wave components 1/3 second = 5 Hz

17
Beats 1 amp frequency amp frequency500 Repetition rate is the difference in frequency between the two sine-wave components 1/100th second = 100 Hz 400

18
Reponse of basilar membrane to sine waves Each point on the membrane acts like bandpass filter tuned to a different frequency: high freq at base, low at apex. Each point vibrates at frequency of pure tone (-> phase locking)

19
Excitation patterns (envelope of excitation) Basilar membrane excitation pattern is like a spectrum

20
Auditory filter bandwidth (ERB)

21
Excitation pattern of complex tone on bm

22
Measurement of auditory bandwidth with band-limited noise Broadband Noise 1000 Hz 2000 Hz frequency 250 Hz Amadeus

23
A gardening analogy

24

25
Auditory bandwidth Noise bandwidth Detection mechanism Tone Noise

26
Wider auditory filter

27
Psychophysical tuning curves Bandwidth

28
Auditory tuning curves Healthy ear Inner hair-cell damage

29
Outer-hair cell damage

30
Human auditory bandwidth At 1 kHz the bandwidth is about 130 Hz; at 5 kHz the bandwidth is about 650 Hz. BW = freq / 8 roughly

31
Normal auditory non-linearities Normal loudness growth (follows Weber’s Law, which is logarithmic, not linear) Combination tones Two-tone suppression Oto-acoustic emissions

32
Combinations Tones (Tartini tones) 1 amp frequency amp frequency

33
Two-tone suppression

34
Conductive vs Sensori-neural deafness Becomes linear, so No combination tones Or two-tone suppression Mostly a combination of OHC and IHC damage

35
Symptoms of SNHL Raised thresholds: helped by amplification Wider bandwidths: no help possible Recruitment (restricted dynamic range): partly helped by automatic gain controls in modern digital aids Often accompanied by tinnitus

36
Normal vs Impaired Dynamic Range

Similar presentations

© 2017 SlidePlayer.com Inc.

All rights reserved.

Ads by Google