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SSSW 2008 Summary

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1 SSSW 2008 Summary

2 Around 50 students Mostly from Europe, a couple from Asia (Japan) and one from US. John Domingue (director) welcomes everybody and warns about not getting stressed about the demanding schedule: a lot of theory, but also a lot of socializing. Sunday: Registration & Reception

3 Main goal of SSSW is to train future researches who want to enter in the SW area. The socializing part of the school is as important as the theory because that is how projects start. Overview of what is to come. Monday: Introduction

4 Theory by Sean Bechhoffer (Manchester) Reasons to use Ontology Languages: Annotation, integration, inference Current languages: XML, RDF, RDFS, OWL Semantic Networks, Topic Maps, UML, Description Logics, Rules, First Order Logic, Conceptual Graphs Analysis of RDF, RDFS and OWL (hint of SKOS) Monday: Ontology Languages for the Semantic Web

5 Aldo Gangemi (Semantic Technology Laboratory, Rome) Capture solutions and best practices of using ontologies and OWL into Ontology Design Patterns (OPs) and provide tools to make ontology design and use easier. Several categories of OPs: Content, Presentation, Reasoning, Architectural, Logical, Refactoring, etc. Special attention to Content Ontology Patterns, which can be used to model parts of ontologies (e.g. model time, n-ary relations, etc.). Monday: Pattern Based Ontology Design

6 Follow a tutorial using OWL in Protégé 4 Try to predict and explain OWL reasoning results Use TopBraid to build an ontology following Extreme Ontology Design method (pair-based modelling, test-oriented) Reuse library of common design patterns to create ontology. Plugin for Protege available, but P4 doesn't currently support SPARQL querying (so no test-oriented development). Monday: Practice OWL & Design Patterns

7 Every student has to present a poster Only two sessions, so you can have a look at half of the other student's work Good mix of interests: Semantic Web Services (and frameworks), Natural Language Processing, Ontology design and use support. Monday: Poster Sessions

8 Experiences of using SW technologies in the area of Cultural Heritage and Demo. Cultural Heritage domain already provides vast amounts of metadata. The main problem becomes converting the plain metadata into semantic metadata: Reach syntactic interoperability: SKOS Align metadata schema: Dublin Core, OWL Subproperties Enrich metadata: most time consuming, information extraction from plain metadata. Align the vocabularies: semantic alignment Tuesday: Invited Talk by Guus Schreiber

9 Jérôme Euzenat (INRIA, France) Main concepts: Correspondence, Alignment, Matching, Generation Applications: Ontology evolution, P2P information sharing, Agent communication, Web services composition, etc. Match based on: entity name, structure, extension(how ontology is used), semantics, background knowledge Examples: edit-distance, Wordnet Different ways to combine matchers to improve resulting alignment Tuesday: Ontology Matching and Alignment

10 Asunción Gómez Pérez (Universidad Politécnica de Madrid) Extensive documentation based on deliverables for NeOn project Based on Software Engineering (resembles RUP in complexity) Extensive glossary of activities, workflows (e.g. how to reengineer non ontological resources), life cycles, decision trees for selecting activities, templates for requirement gathering, ontology specification, etc. Tuesday: Ontological Engineering

11 Ontology Matching & Alignment Practice using APIs and services Ontological Engineering Follow Neon Methodology to create an ontology Write specification based on a textual description Build ontology using Watson plug-in (reuse concepts and relationships found on the internet). Tuesday: Practice

12 Background information about US Computer Science funding, especially DARPA US SW: DARPA's DAML Program $45M over 5 years After DARPA (2005) no research follow-up, but lots of start- ups and commercial use. Emphasis on Databases with SW In EU: Large Public Sector Investments, R&D Institutes(DERI and STI), Emphasis on Social and Web. SW has evolved from a machine web, through enterprise integration to current Web 2.0 user-centric. Next step: LarKC (EC Framework 7 Program), make SW as scalable as possible. Wednesday: Talk by Marc Greaves (Vulcan Inc.)

13 Fabio Ciravegna (Sheffield) Main goal is to share knowledge (acquisition and capture are only prerequisites) Ontology-based annotation: use an ontology + UI + knowledge source to add semantic annotation (e.g. AktiveMedia) Automatic Techniques: Named Entity Recognition, Terminology Recognition (Linguistic, Statistical, Distance based approaches), Table Field Extraction, Event modelling (IE hits a performance ceiling 60/70 Precision/Recall ratio since 1998) K-Search: provide hybrid search (keyword + semantics) Wednesday: SW Technologies for Capturing, Sharing and Reusing Knowledge

14 John Domingue (KMI, Open University) WSMO: Use ontologies for describing WS: Non-functional (QoS, version), capabilities(functional description), choreography(grounding), orchestration(composition). Mediators take care of integration. Provide links between one or more source components and a target component (e.g. ontologies and WS, WS and goals, two WS, etc.). Mediators use Mediation Services. Architecture: Presentation, SWS, WS, Legacy Systems. IRS3: SWS Broker. Variants of WSMO (WSMO-Lite, SAWSDL, MicroWSMO) Wednesday: Semantic Web Services: Approaches and Applications

15 Ontologies and Folksonomies: False Friends Tags don't have semantics (e.g. Red has different meanings in Spanish or English). Brief overview of Classifications, Ontologies, Folksonomies Folksonomies are not Ontologies (even though Ontology is used for a wide variety of models). Wednesday: Talk by Chris Welty (IBM Research)

16 Annotate websites using AktiveMedia (semi automatic annotation). Use annotations to perform hybrid search in K-Search. Wednesday: Practice

17 Community-based Ontology Development Different ways to collaborate depend on: Ontology size, Community size, Control mechanisms, Discussion tools, Synchronization mechanisms. Tool requirements: support discussion and reaching consensus, provide context (record discussions and changes), provenance and trust, personalized views, personal and shared spaces, access control, user roles, flexible workflow support. (Collaborative Protégé) NCBO BioPortal: repository of ontologies, terminologies and thesauri in biomedicine. Ontologies described by metadata (ontology assessment). Community-based evaluation. Support for ontology mapping. Thursday: Talk Natasha Noy (Stanford)

18 Use WSMO-Studio, IRS-III server and browser + provided ontologies and legacy methods (in Lisp dialect) to create SWS. Domain was European travel. Thursday: Practice

19 First part is an overview of what the next generation of SW is about: dynamic, distributed, scalable, handling variable quality of data. Watson search engine and how it is used in Power Aqua Second part is on automatically summarizing ontologies. People can say what the key concepts in an ontology are. Helpful for ontology evaluation and reuse. Algorithm based on Density of concepts(global and local density measures), natural categories, coverage of isa hierarchy. Evaluation gives mean of 42.5% matches with human experts' summary. Algorithm v2 based on evaluation results (people don't use coverage much, but use popularity of term) %. Friday: Talk by Enrico Motta (KMI, Open University)

20 Groups of 4 or 5 students. Choose a SW-related topic and work out a project (available time is Thursday afternoon and most of Friday until 8 pm). Present the project in 10 minutes on Saturday morning. Projects evaluated on technical soundness, feasibility, presentation, originality, amount of work done. -iService: human computation using SWS -Mapping NL to Ontology Design Patterns Mini-project

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