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Mitsunori Ogihara Center for Computational Science

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1 Mitsunori Ogihara Center for Computational Science
Ontology & Semantic Web – A Dummy’s Overview of Modern Technologies for Sharing Knowledge Mitsunori Ogihara Center for Computational Science

2 What Is an Ontology? Merriam-Webster: “The branch of metaphysics dealing with the nature of being” What does it mean to exist? What exists? In the field of computer science an ontology is “a specification of a conceptualization” – Tom Gruber

3 World, Specification, Conceptualization
Human observes the world and conceptualizes it That human conceptualization is put into a specification The world matches the specification

4 What an Ontology Can Conceptualize
Things to exist Individuals, not necessarily physical existence Classes of individuals Relations among things Is a part of Is not equal to Properties about things Has a value of

5 Problem Conceptualization is ambiguous and inaccurate
How a person A sees the world is not necessarily equal to how a person B sees the world Specification is difficult Formal specification is tiresome How efficiently can one develop an ontology? How efficiently can one compare ontologies?

6 Why Was the Idea of Ontology Created?
Artificial Intelligence … a branch of computer science that studies computational methods of mimicking human intelligence Intelligence includes ability to Understand data obtained through senses Acquire knowledge Apply knowledge to solve problems Understand emotion

7 Knowledge Representation
An area that studies how to formally think [Davis, Shrobe, and Solovitz’93] Knowledge Representation is A surrogate A set of ontological commitments A fragmentary theory of intelligent reasoning A medium for efficient computation A medium of human expression Commitments are filters through which the world is observed

8 Semantic Web The first generation of Web is HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) This is designed so as to present texts in a format specification that can be easily understood and rendered Search engines can find documents that may contain certain information by using keyword matches, but can’t find an answer to a question

9 Semantic Web A new generation of web should provide not texts but structured information, a part of which may be texts Resource Description Framework (where the resources are) XML (Extensive Markup Language) A user-definable format Documents conforming to the format Idea: Decide on what information can a web page might contain Decide on how to describe such information Annotate the web page with such information in a predetermined format

10 Ontology Development Tools
OWL (Web Ontology Language) Currently the most popular ontology description language OWL DL (Description Logic, standard version) OWL Lite (restricted version) … basic constructs exist to logically express constructs of DL OWL Full (for RDF)

11 A History of Ontology Description Languages
KIF (1992) … Stanford, first-order logic Loom (1992) … USC, first-order logic, for KR nor necessarily for ontologies FLogic (1995) … Karlsruhe, combination of first-order logic and frames OKBC (1997) … DARPA XOL (1999) … SRI, an XML version of OKBC OWL (2001) … W3C

12 Ontology Development Tools
Created along with development of description languages



15 Popular Free Tools Protégé-2000
Swoop … an open source project, hosted at Google

16 Ontology Building Process
Vocabulary Need to settle on a set of words to be used to describe the domain knowledge (or the domain of the web contents) Where to start? Thousands of words? Knowledge Base Building Express domain experts’ knowledge in terms of ontology Who will translate knowledge into logical forms? Ambiguity issues? Inference Make new discovery Identify classes and properties of an individual Inference engines, compute-intensive

17 Exporting Ontologies Protégé and Swoop (and others) have the ability to export/import data in various formats Enables information exchange between ontologies

18 Finding a Nice Mapping A mapping f of an ontology O to an ontology O’ is one that maps each class of O to a class of O’ and each property of O to another property of O’. We want: For all classes c and d of O, c is a subclass of d if and only if f(c) is a subclass of f(d) in O’ For all class c and property p of O, c has property p if and only if f(c) has property f(p) in O’ Finding a perfect mapping is hard, and practically such a perfect mapping rarely exists Finding a mapping that maximizes a certain quantity is also difficult, and is NP-hard Heuristic methods are usually used (based on graph properties)

19 References T.R.Gruber (1993), A Translation Approach to Portable Ontology Specifications, Knowledge Acquisition V.Devedzik(2002), Understanding ontological engineering, Communications of the ACM J.Gennari, M.Musen, R.Fergerson (2003), The evolution of Protégé: an environment for knowledge-based systems development, International Journal of Human-Computer Studies A.Kalyanpur, B.Parsia, E.Sirin, B.Grau (2006), Swoop: A web ontology editing browser, Web Semantics: Science O.Corcho et al. (2003), Methodologies, tools and languages for building ontologies. Where is their meeting point? Data&Knowledge Engineering L.Lacy (2005), OWL: Representing information using the web ontology language J.Euzenat, P. Shvaiko (2007), Ontology Matching, Springer


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