2 Module 6 Sessions 7 and 8 In Session 7 In Session 8 Common training methods will be identifiedTraining methods will be linked to learning objectivesResources for improved statistics training will be exploredIn Session 8Points to be considered when designing a session are consideredparticipants will create a session of their own
3 Learning objectivesAt the end of these sessions participants should be able to:Identify the objectives of a training sessionDecide on the content and materials of a sessionStructure a session and decide on an appropriate pace
4 Methods used in training (20 min) Discuss as a class training methods you have used or encountered in the past.Make a list on the board of all the training methods you have experienced.Which did you think most and least effective/enjoyable and why?As mentioned in earlier sessions adults learn better in an environment which allows them to be autonomous, share their experience and be active.In light of this which training methods do you think would be best suited to adult training?
5 Training methods Active and Passive Training methods fit into two categories:Active and PassiveIn Active learning the responsibility of learning lies with the learner. It covers all methods of training where the participants are involved and active in the learning process.In passive learning knowledge is directly transferred from one entity to another. It is normally a one way transfer some from and entity with more knowledge towards an entity with less knowledge (of the topic).
6 Common training methods Here are a few of the key training methods (though there are many more):LectureWords spoken by an instructor to an audienceReadingUsing text books, participants are given reading which they will later be quizzed on or need to recallDemonstrationThese are similar to lectures but are more focused on the visual component. (Like the excel demonstrations in this course)Interactive demonstrationLike demonstration but the viewer controls the pace, can repeat things, make things happen and sometimes ask questions. Similar to some of the exercises in CAST
7 Common training methods Group discussionsAre conversations about a topic among a group of participants facilitated by a trainer. The trainers role is to help set the stage, keeps the discussion moving along and get everyone involved.DebatesA debate is an organised group discussion where participants are assigned a position on a certain topic. It works well with controversial topics where half the group are for it and the other half against.BrainstormingIs a method of problem solving in which all members of a group spontaneously contribute ideas. Every idea is acknowledged and recorded without judgment. There then follows a discussion to structure the recorded points.Role playparticipants are provided with a situation and asked to act it out for the rest of the class. The situations are not complicated and they do not use scripts, it is improvised and brief.
8 Common training methods Field tripsparticipants are taken into the field so they can see the true context of the topics being studied.Case studiesAs a training method Case Studies refer to an exercise where participant are presented with a problem situation and its background. They are then requested to propose recommendations.Small group tasksSmall groups may be asked to complete any number of exercises, this develops soft skills while ensuring everyone in the class get hands on experience with the topic.Learning in pairsCreating learning partnerships is an effective way to promote active learning. These can be short or long term arrangements which can be integrated into and provide support for other training methods
9 Combining Each of the training methods has strengths and weaknesses. The way to overcome these is to combine them into an interesting varied training session.Lecturing is a good way of transferring knowledge.The activities should be there to make the participants think for themselves and thus personalise and further that knowledge.The discussions are good for:introducing topics, getting participants thinking about them and by proxy allowing the trainer to grasp the level of the class.reviewing topics, making participants think back to all they have learnt about it and addressing any remaining questions about it.By using each of these at the appropriate time in the learning process you are supporting the steps of learning.
10 Training methods and learning objectives When deciding which training methods to employ you must refer back to your learning objectives.Clearly establish what it is that you want to achieve.Which level of learning are you aiming for?Increased knowledgeImproved comprehensionPracticing the application of knowledgeAnalytical thinking about a topicSynthesising of informationEvaluation of information
11 Handout: This sheet provides and interesting view of training methods in relation to learning objectives.The large highlighted word in the middle of each column defines the type of learning that will be achieved by the activities above it and thus allow participants to perform the activities listed below it.E.g. if your learning objective is to get the class to be able to define something you should think about using a lecture in your session.
12 Practical (45 minutes) Get into pairs Imagine that you are at a training methods fair.Each group should chose or be assigned a different training method which they will have to advertise.You then have 25 minutes to create a poster promoting your training method.Afterwards the class will attend the fair and reflect on how best to combine these training methods (20 mins)
13 Novel statistical teaching resources CASTTo the WoodsThe web(discussion fora (e.g. The Moodle forum), public data sources (e.g. UN site, World Bank))
14 PracticalSpend some time (40 min) familiarising yourselves with these statistical resources. Remind yourselves of what can be done when a range of resources are available.Discuss as a class the potential uses of these novel resources in statistics training (20 min).
15 Creating a session: Points to consider Certain points will be predetermined you can not change these therefore you must create the session around them. Two of these areThe AudienceYou must learn as much as possible about your audience before you create the session.Think carefully about what you know, where they work, what positions they hold and any other information you can find.The durationYou must keep your timeframe in mind throughout.Think about how much time you have, think about it in relation to your audience.
16 Creating a session Points to consider The predetermined points will help you to set achievable learning objectives.Learning ObjectivesShould take into account the audience and durationWill determine the pace, content, materialsOnce these have been set you must refer back to them repeatedly while creating the session and choosing your activities.You should refer back to these at the end of the session to establish whether or not they have been met.
17 Creating a session: Points to consider The following points must be centred around the audience meeting the objectives within the timeframe.ContentThink about your objectives, which topics do you need to cover for people to achieve them?Always keep it clear and to the point, refrain from including peripheral informationMake sure it flows logicallyTraining methodThink about your objectives, what type of learning are you aiming for?Think about your content how do you think its messages will best be understood?Think about your audience, what might they enjoy? How can you get them involved and inspired?Think about your timeframe, which activities will make best use of it?
18 Creating a session: Points to consider Materials/ResourcesIn light of your chosen content and training methods what do you need?Make sure that they are appropriate, do not use something just because it is there. Often simple is best, if you decide to use a complex range of materials make sure they do not distract from the message you are putting across.PaceThink about your audience and what you are asking form them.Have an ideal pace in mind, you should practice your presentations to fit this.However your pace must be dynamic, you should be able to vary the pace In case your audience is unexpected. If you have over or underestimated them you will have to slow down or speed up accordingly.
19 Practical 2 Activities 6 and 7 participants will prepare their own training session in pairs.There are 4 sessions to choose from each with a defined audience and duration.The sessions will later be presented to the class to promote discussion about the training methods used.
20 Learning objectives reviewed Can you now:Identify the objectives of a training sessionDecide on the content and materials of a sessionStructure a session and decide on an appropriate pace