4Route of acquisitionU-shaped learningExample: Myles et al. (1999)
5Myles et al. (1999) L1 English/L2 French 16 adolescents Recorded 6 times over 2 yearsInitially drilled in using ‘chunks’:Quel âge as-tu?Comment tu t’appelles?Qu’est qu’il aime faire?etc.
6Myles et al. (1999) Findings: Three question types: 1. Qs formed from chunks they had been drilled on.2. Novel questions lacking verbsOù la piscine?3. Novel questions with verbs
7Myles et al. (1999) Q type Sample 1 2 3 4 5 6 Chunk 143/186 77% 264/41863%47/11142%214/48344%261/62240/26415%V-less41/18622%129/41831%53/11148%235/48349%287/62246%182/26469%With V2/1861%25/4186%11/11110%34/4837%74/62212%42/26416%
8Route of acquisition Fixed stages of acquisition Example: Pienemann (1998)
9Pienemann (1998) Stages of acquisition of word order in L2 German: SVO Die kinder spielen mim ball (the children play with the ball)Adverb pre-posing Da kinder spielen (there children play)Verb separation Aller kinder muss die pause machen (all children must the pause make)Verb second (V2) Dann hat sie wieder die knoch gebringt (then has she again the bone brought)Verb final in subordinate clauses Er sagte dass er nach hause kommt (he said that he to home comes)
10Rate of acquisition Some learners are faster than others Example 1: Snow and Hoefnagel-Hole (1978)Example 2: Dulay and Burt (1974)
11Snow and Hoefnagel-Hohle (1978) L1 English / L2 DutchImmersionTasks: Pronunciation, auditory discrimination, morphology, sentence repetition, sentence translation, sentence judgement, story comprehension, Peabody Picture Vocabulary TestFindings:After 3 months’ residence: adults and adolescents outperformed children on testsAfter 10 months’ residence: the children caught up
12Dulay and Burt (1974)L1 Chinese (Cantonese) / L2 English (replication of D&B, 73, L1 Spanish / L2 English children)year-olds in the USTask: BSM
15Variable attainment profile FossilizationHigh levels of individual variationExample 1: Franceschina (2001)Example 2: Johnson and Newport (1989)
16Franceschina (2001) L1 English, L1 Italian / L2 Spanish Nearnatives Task: Spontaneous speech productionFindings:All learners were equally accurate (totally target-like) on number agreementThe Italian speakers were more accurate than the English speakers on gender agreement
17Johnson and Newport (1989) L1 Chinese, L1 Korean / L2 English 46 participantsAoA: between 3-39Minimum residence in the US: 5 yearsTask: GJT testing a range of grammatical properties
20Summary ILGs are: Systematic (e.g., route, within L1 groups) Variable (according to age of acquisition, L1, in terms of rate of acquisition and outcome)
21What determines the variable L2 outcomes? Learner-internal factorsAge (Singleton and Lengyel, 1995; Birdsong, 1999)L1 (Odlin, 1989; Gass and Selinker, 1992)Aptitude (Sawyer and Ranta, 2001)Motivation (Dornyei and Schmidt, 2001)…
22What determines the variable L2 outcomes? Learner-external factorsType of input (Carroll, 2001; Norris and Ortega, 2000)Type of interaction (Gass, 1997)…
23What determines the variable L2 outcomes? Caveat: SLA researchers do not all agree on the exact role that the previously mentioned factors play in determining L2 outcomes.
24ReferencesBirdsong, D. (ed.) 1999: Second Language Acquisition and the Critical Period Hypothesis. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Carroll, S. E. 2001: Input and evidence. The raw material of SLA. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.Dornyei, Z. and R. Schmidt. 2001: Motivation and second language acquisition. Manoa: University of Hawai'i at Manoa.Dulay, H. and M. Burt. 1974: Natural sequences in child second language acquisition. Language Learning 24,Franceschina, F. 2001: Where lies the difference between native and non-native grammars? Evidence from the L2A of Spanish, in S. Foster-Cohen and A. Nizegorodcew, eds. EUROSLA Yearbook 1. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. PpGass, S. M. 1997: Input, interaction and the second language learner. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Gass, S. M. and L. Selinker. (eds.) 1992: Language transfer in language learning. Rowley, MA: Newbury House.
25ReferencesMyles, F., R. Mitchell and P. J. Hooper. 1999: Interrogative chunks in French L2: a basis for creative construction? Studies in Second Language Acquisition 21,Norris, J. and L. Ortega. 2000: Effectiveness of L2 instruction: a research synthesis and quantitative meta-analysis. Language Learning 50,Odlin, T. 1989: Language transfer: cross-linguistic influence in language learning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Pienemann, M. 1998a: Language processing and L2 development. Processability theory. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.b: Developmental dynamics in L1 and L2 acquisition: Processability Theory and generative entrenchment. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition 1, 1-20.Sawyer, M. and L. Ranta. 2001: Aptitude, individual differences and instructional design, in P. Robinson, ed. Cognition and second language instruction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. PpSingleton, D. M. and Z. Lengyel. (eds.) 1995: The age factor in second language acquisition. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.Snow, C. E. and M. Hoefnagel-Hohle. 1978: The critical period for language acquisition: evidence from second language learning. Child Development 49,
26AdministrativeReading: White (2003: chapter 1). You will find some study questions on the course website. You can also read chapter 2, which contains more advanced discussion.Empirical study summary formsGlossary cardsThis term seminars will take place in weeks 2, 3, 4, 5, 7 and 8 in Bowland B61