2What is this speaker’s L1? “… it is confirmed by studies that smoking can cause the addictive and dependence, both on psychology and physic.[…] The earlier a people begin to smoke or the more cigaretters he smoked, the more dangerous he will have on his health.”Source: S02FLPEDU01WT, HKCSpanishChineseGerman
3What is transfer?“[transfer is evidenced as] those instances of deviation from the norms of either language which occur in the speech of bilinguals as a result of their familiarity with more than one language”Weinreich (1953: 1)
4“[transfer is] the use of the native language (or other language) information in the acquisition of an L2 (or additional language)”Gass (1996: 321)“[transfer is] influence that the learner’s L1 exerts on the acquisition of an L2”Ellis (1997: 51)
5Other terms Transfer Mother tongue influence (Corder, 1967) Native language influence (Gass, 1996)Cross-linguistic influence (Kellerman and Sharwood-Smith, 1986; Odlin, 1989)Cross-linguistic generalization (Zobl, 1984)
6Early research 1950s-1960s Behaviourism Lado (1957), Fries (1945) Positive transfer (facilitation) vs Negative transfer (interference)
7Contrastive AnalysisMethodology (strong version of CAH): 1. Find out what the differences are between pairs of languages 2. On the basis of 1, you can predict areas in which L2 learners will have difficulties and those where they won’tPedagogical uses
8Lado’s hierarchy of difficulty: DifferentiationNew categoryAbsent categoryCoalescingCorrespondence
9Problems with CAH CAH was empirically unsupported: It predicted some difficulties that were not observed in L2 learnersIt failed to predict some difficulties that were observed in L2 learners
10Error Analysis Corder (1967) Mistake vs Error EA methodology: Collect dataIdentify errorsClassify errorsQuantify errorsIdentify sourceRemedy
11Classifying errorsSource or errors:InterlingualIntralingual
12Problems with E.A. Total reliance on errors (not the whole picture) Difficulties identifying source of errors
13Morpheme order studies Dulay and Burt (1973, 1974) Bailey, Madden and Krashen (1974)Claim: there is little or no influence of the L1 in L2 development
14Problems with no-L1-influence-on-SLA views There IS empirical evidence of L1 influenceMethodological drawbacks of morphemes studies
15Krashen’s account of L1 transfer No L1 influence in the acquired systemL1 influence is a communication strategy(Krashen, 1982, 1985)
16Kellerman’s (1979) framework Learner’s perceived language distancePsychotypologyMarkedness
17Current views on transfer General consensus: both the L1 and general developmental processes shape SLA.No agreement on exactly what each contributes, or how.
18Transfer may be realised as: ErrorsFacilitationAvoidance strategiesHypercorrectionOverproduction...
19Where can transfer manifest itself? Rate of acquisitionRoute of developmentFrequency of occurrence of errors/omissionsPerception and productionSeemingly all areas of the grammarExercise
20Transfer in the L2 initial stage Minimal Trees (Vainikka and Young-Scholten, 1994, 1996, 1998)vsFull Transfer/Full Access (Schwartz and Sprouse, 1994, 1996)
21Recent developmentsTransfer in L3 acquisition (Cenoz and Jessner, 2000)L2 effects on the L1 (Cook, 2003)
22ReferencesBailey, N., C. G. Madden and S. D. Krashen. 1974: Is there a ‘natural sequence’ in adult second language learning? Language Learning 24,Cenoz, J. and U. Jessner. (eds.) 2000: English in Europe: the acquisition of a third language. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.Corder, P. 1967: The significance of learner errors. International Review of Applied Linguistics (IRAL) 5, 2/3:Cook, V. J. (ed.) 2003: Effects of the second language on the first. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.Dulay, H. and M. Burt. 1973: Should we teach children syntax? Language Learning 23,Dulay, H. and M. Burt.1974: Natural sequences in child second language acquisition. Language Learning 24,Ellis, R. 1997: Second language acquisition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Fries, C. 1945: Teaching and learning English as a foreign language. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.Gass, S. M. 1996: Second language acquisition and linguistic theory: the role of language transfer, in W. C. Ritchie and T. K. Bhatia, eds. The handbook of second language acquisition. San Diego: Academic Press. PpKellerman, E. 1979: Transfer and non-transfer: where we are now. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 2,Kellerman, E. and M. Sharwood Smith. 1986: Crosslinguistic influence in second language acquisition. New York: Oxford University Press.
23ReferencesKrashen, S. D. 1982: Principles and practice in SLA. Oxford: Pergamon Press.Krashen, S. D. 1985: The Input Hypothesis: issues and implications. London: Longman.Lado, R. 1957: Linguistics across cultures. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.Odlin, T. 1989: Language transfer: cross-linguistic influence in language learning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Schwartz, B. D. and R. A. Sprouse. 1994: Word order and nominative Case in nonnative language acquisition: a longitudinal study of (L1 Turkish) German interlanguage, in T. Hoekstra and B. D. Schwartz, eds. Language acquisition studies in generative grammar. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. PpSchwartz, B. D. and R. A. Sprouse. 1996: L2 cognitive states and the 'full transfer/full access' model. Second Language Research 12, 1:Vainikka, A. and M. Young-Scholten. 1994: Direct access to X'-theory: evidence from Korean and Turkish adults learning German., in T. Hoekstra and B. D. Schwartz, eds. Language acquisition studies in generative grammar. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.Vainikka, A. and M. Young-Scholten. 1996: Gradual development of L2 phrase structure. Second Language Research 12, 1: 7-39.Vainikka, A. and M. Young-Scholten. 1998: Functional categories and related mechanisms in child second language acquisition, in S. Flynn, G. Martohardjono and W. O'neil, eds. The generative study of second language acquisition. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Weinreich, U. 1953: Languages in contact. New York: Linguistic Circle of New York.Zobl, H. 1984: Aspects of reference and the ponominal syntax preference in the speech of young child L2 learners, in R. W. Andersen, ed. Second languages: a cross-linguistic perspective. Rowley, MA: Newbury House.
24ReadingOdlin, T. 2003: Cross-linguistic influence. In Handbook of Second Language Acquisition, eds. C. J. Doughty and M. H. Long. Malden, MA: Blackwell. Pp