Presentation on theme: "Chapter 1: The Puzzle of Matter Chemistry explains the structure, composition and behavior of matter. Matter is anything that takes up space and has mass."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 1: The Puzzle of Matter Chemistry explains the structure, composition and behavior of matter. Matter is anything that takes up space and has mass.
Properties of matter Macroscopic – see with unaided eye Microscopic – see with a microscope Submicroscopic – need a special microscope or the use of models. Scientific Models - used to explain observations. Based on scientific investigation and experimentation. Period at the end of a sentence =. 1 x 10 20 atoms!!!! STM - scanning tunneling microscope – study atoms nanoscale technology
Classifying Matter Qualitative – made without measurement Quantitative – observation made with measurement, data Pure Substance or Mixture? Pure – one kind of matter Mixture – different kinds of matter aspirinsucrose
Mixtures - substances mixed together but not chemically combined. Example: ocean water, granite, air, blood 3 properties of mixtures: 1) keep their separate identities 2) the substances may be present in any amount 3) the substances can be separated out by simple physical means – ex: evaporating, using a magnet, density
Heterogeneous Homogeneous 2 Types of Mixtures Least mixed – Ex: Concrete, oil and vinegar, blood Well Mixed – appear to be the same throughout EX: lemonade, ocean water, air
Solutions “Best mixed” – homogenous mixture 2 or more substances in one physical state. AIR – gas Lemonade – liquid
Solid - Metal solutions are called alloys ex: brass, steel. Stainless steel – mixture of 2 metals; chromium and iron Brass = copper and zinc
In a solution the substance that dissolves is called the solute and the substance that does the dissolving is called the solvent. Water = “Universal Solvent” When water is the solvent its known as an ‘aqueous solution’.
Elements A type of pure substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances. iron sulfur
Compounds Type of pure substance that can be broken down into simpler substances. Compounds – 2 or more different elements bonded together. Salt NaCl - Halite
Formula – shows what elements are present in the compound and how many atoms of each element. Ex: Carbon Dioxide (CO 2 ) – one atom of carbon and 2 atoms of oxygen 2 = subscript Sodium Chloride (NaCl) Water (H 2 O) Ascorbic acid – C 6 H 8 O 6 Vitamin C