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Classification of Matter
Four classes of matter w The four classes of matter are elements, compounds, mixtures, and solutions
Homogeneous matter w Appears to look similar throughout w Ex: salt, sugar, whipped cream w all parts are alike (appearance)
Question w What does the prefix homo mean? w Name the four classes of matter. w What are the four phases of matter?
Question w Milk in most stores is homogenized. What do you think this means?
Heterogeneous matter w Matter that has different properties w Ex: soil, cereal with raisins, concrete
Question w How is homogeneous matter different from heterogeneous matter?
Question video video w Why is it better to classify matter according to make-up rather than phase? Think!
What is a mixture? w A combination of substances w Two or more substances that are not chemically combined
Properties of mixtures w The substances in a mixture keep their separate identities (properties) w Ex: salt/pepper, sugar/water
Separating mixtures w The substances in a mixture can be separated by simple physical means w Evaporation and filtration are used to separate mixtures
Types of mixtures (video)(video) w Heterogeneous mixtures are the least mixed of all mixtures w The different particles in mixtures are large enough to be seen
Homogeneous mixtures w Homogenous mixtures are well mixed w Particles are small and not easily recognized
Question w What are two ways mixtures can be separated?
Solutions (video)(video) w A solution is a mixture in which a substance is dissolved in another, best mixed
Properties of a solution w Particles are not large enough to be seen w Evenly spread particles w Particles cannot be separated by simple physical means
Alloys (video)(video) w Solutions of metals are alloys w Ex: gold jewelry, brass, sterling silver, stainless steel
Questions w Describe an alloy. w What are two properties of a solution?
Pure substances (video)(video) w Homogeneous matter is also known as a pure substance w Properties: one kind of material with the same properties
Elements w Simplest types pure substances w Made of only one type of atom w Cannot be broken down by chemical processes or heating
What is an atom? (video)(video) w The smallest particle of an element that has the same properties of the element is the atom
Chemical symbols w A short way of representing elements w Consists of one or two letters w An abbreviation for an element
Question w What are two properties of elements? w What is an atom?
Compounds (video)video w Pure substances made of more than one element is a compound w Ex: carbon dioxide, ammonia, sugar
Molecules w Two or more atoms that are chemically bonded w Smallest part of a compound that has the same properties of that compound
Separating compounds w Compounds are made of molecules w Compounds can be broken down into simpler substances by heating and electricity
Questions w How is a molecule different from an atom? w How is a compound different from an element?
Chemical formulas w Combinations of chemical symbols are chemical formulas (C 3 H 7 OH) (NH 3 )
Subscript w A subscript is placed to the lower right of the chemical symbol w It gives the number of atoms of the element
Questions w How is chemical symbol different from a chemical formula?
Chemical equations w A description of a chemical reaction using symbols and formulas is a chemical equation
Coefficient w The number used to balance a chemical equation (coefficient) w Balanced means the same number of reactants and products
Questions w How is a subscript different from a coefficient?
Chemical reactions w Reactants are the substances that enter a chemical reaction w Products are the substances formed by a chemical reaction
Chemical equations w 2H 2 +O 2 (reactants) 2H 2 O w The arrow means yields (makes) w C + O 2 CO 2 (products) w Reactants (yield) products
Questions w What does the arrow mean in a chemical equation? w What is a chemical equation?
Questions w What is another name for a chemical reaction? w On what side of a chemical reaction would you find the reactants? w Products?
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