Presentation on theme: "A genre-based approach to written feedback on writing exercises in English as a second language Claudia Böttger & Nicole Diedrichsen Europäische Fernhochschule."— Presentation transcript:
1A genre-based approach to written feedback on writing exercises in English as a second language Claudia Böttger & Nicole Diedrichsen Europäische Fernhochschule Hamburg - University of Applied SciencesBristol University
2Challenges1:4 appeals from students are on the type of feedback they getAnnual student evaluation of distance teaching on all B.A., M.A. and M.B.A.s show that feedback causes discontentforeign languages and business communication is largely exempt from thisProcess of Quality Assurance Agency underway - focus on research-based teachingLaunch of pilot project on student support systems at distance university (May 2012)Feedback particularly important during first year(Tait 2003; Chetwynd & Dobbyn 2011)
3Students Adult learners studying while at work Studying for business-basedB.A., M.A. and M.B.A.Mandatory Business language module25-50 years of age48 % male – 52 % femaleAt work most of them engage in NNS-NNS (written) interactions on a weekly/regular basis(Highly) motivated, but very busy
4Tutors 6 tutors business English 2 tutors business Spanish 2 tutors business FrenchDegrees in second language teaching (B.A., M.A., Ph.D.)Experienced as language teachers, translators and authors
5Background Considerable differences in types of feedback given by tutorsvarying according to tutorto types of language exerciseswanted by students and their reported uses of itFeedback is too shortComments are not clear and not helpful.
6Functions of feedbackhelps clarify what good performance is (goals, criteria, expected standards)facilitates the development of self‐assessment (reflection) in autonomous learningprovides assessment to students about their learningtriggers tutor and peer dialogue around learningencourages positive motivational beliefs and self‐esteem in autonomous learnersopens opportunities to close the gap between current and desired performancegives information to tutors to help devise learning material for autonomous learners.(Nicol 2007)
7Purpose of studyTo sensitize tutors to form and function of written feedback by using a corpus-based approach (Swales & Feak 2009a, 2009b)To give support to students to adequately exploit feedback's potential in distance-learning contextby analysing written feedback as a genre from a textlinguistic perspective (Mauranen 1993; Bhatia 1998; Hyland 2011).
8Agenda Background Methodological considerations Discussion of examples Next steps
9Form and function of genres are historically grown and institutionally shaped textual patternshave a set of communicative purposesmay vary their generic function, i.e. across domains, media, cultures and over time.The rationale for the genreshapes the schematic and rhetorical structure of the discoursedetermines and constrains choice of content and style.(Swales 1990; Bhatia 2003)The primary determinant of genre membership is that of 'purpose', the schematic structure and linguistic features are regarded as dimensions to the realisation of genres (cf. Eggins 1994: 36).
10Genre analysis provides framework for move analysis rhetorical move structure analysis explorescommunicative function of textidentifies words/phrases associated with it.The primary determinant of genre membership is that of 'purpose', the schematic structure and linguistic features are regarded as dimensions to the realisation of genres (cf. Eggins 1994: 36).
11Corpus on feedback to business English tests Corpus on Feedback on writing texts forBusiness English in international contexts (internal)London Chamber of Commerce (B2)Business English Cambridge (B2)International legal English certificate, Level B2/C1PilotstudyFor each of these 4 tests: corpus of 20 feedback samples
12Subcorpus on feedback to ILEC test International legal English certificate, Level B2/C1Reading test:1. multiple-choice cloze, emphasis on lexis2. Open cloze, emphasis on structure3. Word formation, emphasis on lexis4. Text preceded by multiple matching questions5. Text from which sentences have been removed and placed in jumbled order after the text.6. Text followed by four-option multiple-choice questions.Writing test: writing a letter and memorandum
13Subcorpus on feedback in EFL Subcorpus: Feedback on ILEC test1 page template to write a commentary and give marks20 feedbacks of 2 different types of feedback10 feedbacks on written EFL tests with good grades10 feedbacks on written EFL tests with bad grades
14Subcorpus on feedback on poor writing Subcorpus: Feedback: negative newsResearch on negative news in different institutional settings (hospital, business settings, consultations etc.) (Bührig & Meyer 2007, Böttger & Bührig 2010)Highly complex communicative taskHelps identify specific learner needs (retrospection)At the same time must encourage learner (foreward-looking)
15Agenda Background Pilot project on business writing Methodological considerationsDiscussion of examplesNext steps
16Communicative pattern of negative news Naming the negative news BufferOpening with general comment.Reasons for negative newsExplainingthe causes for negative news.Naming the negative news- Describingthe negative news.ClosingAnnouncing future steps; foreward looking statement.From our analysis of our corpus of NS-NS discouse, we culled the information that letters of refusal are structuredusing the following move structure:Argumentative moves for communicating negative news effectively (Swales & Feak 2009a, 2009b; Guffey 2010)
17Communicative pattern in feedback on poorly written work BufferOpening with general comment or retrospective -on-skills.Reasons formarking it as mistakeExplainingthe causes for marking it as mistake.Naming the mistake- Describingthe mistake.ClosingAnnouncing future steps; foreward looking statement.From our analysis of our corpus of NS-NS discouse, we culled the information that letters of refusal are structuredusing the following move structure:Argumentative moves for communicating negative news effectively (Swales & Feak 2009a, 2009b; Guffey 2010)
18Feedback to poor work Dear Ms Lauder, Here are the results of your test. As you can see you are moving up the ladder step by step, which is very rewarding.The vocabulary exercises in tasks 2 and 4 were your biggest problem. For practice I would suggest you take the vocabulary from task 2 and try to put the words into sentences of your own. As to task 4, practice for this could be looking at the article on p. 4 again. Your letter fulfilled the task and stayed well within the parameters for the number of words. Also your use of register fitted the task in hand. There were, however, a few grammar and a couple of spelling mistakes.This easily happens when one is writing online, I know. Check out the present perfect to see if it is 100% clear.You are working really hard and I am sure you will be going onto the next step soon. As always please do not hesitate to contact me, should you have any queries.Yours sincerely, PennyBuffer:Genuine praise;retrospectionReasons:explains whyresult is poorGivingrecommen-dationsClosing:Foreward lookingstatement &words of en-couragement
19Feedback to poor work Dear Mr Smith, Thank you for your exam paper. I am sorry to say it is not quite such a good result as last time, but well within the pass range. As you can see by the marks on the right, two of the tasks (2 & 4) presented quite a problem although you received full marks with task 1.The ‘word family’ exercise was much more difficult this time, so you should not take it too hard. (...) It might, however be an idea to look at the exercise again and work out all the derivations of the stem words.The content and the register of the letter were fine, however, there were several grammar mistakes this time. Could you check out the use of the gerund and the verbs which take it?Please do not hesitate to contact me, should you have any queries.Yours sincerely,PennyBuffer:Regret &assess-mentReasons:explains whyresult is poorRe-commendationClosing:Invitation tomaintaindialogue
20Communicative pattern in feedback on poorly written work BufferOpening with general comment or retrospective -on-skills.Reasons for marksExplainingthe reasons for marks.Recommend-ationsOffering advice& recommen-dationsGivingmarks- Givingmark.ClosingAnnouncing future steps; foreward looking statement.From our analysis of our corpus of NS-NS discouse, we culled the information that letters of refusal are structuredusing the following move structure:Corpus-based findings on rhetorical moves for communicating negative news effectively
21Agenda Background Pilot project on business writing Methodological considerationsDiscussion of examplesNext steps
22Outlook Undertaking more corpus based research Considering culturally determined conventions of conveying negative news in feedbackProviding feedback to tutors on students‘ reception of feedback and peer discussionOrganizing special topic workshop for tutorsDiscussing how to make students aware of potential of using feedback for autonomous learningIntegrating audio feed-back
23ReferencesBhatia, V. K. (2004): Worlds of Written Discourse: A Genre-based View. London: Continuum Publishers.Chetwynd, F. & C. Dobyn (2011): Assessment, feedback and marking guides in distance education. Open learning: The Journal of Open and Distance Learning. Vol 26, Issue 1,Connor, U. (2004): Intercultural rhetoric research; Beyond texts. English for Academic Purposes, pHyland, K. (2005:) Metadiscourse: Exploring interaction in writing. London: Continuum.Martin, P. M. (2003): A genre analysis of English and Spanish research paper abstracts in experimental Social Sciences. English for Specific Purposes, v. 22, n. 1, pNicol, D. (2000): Principles of good assessment and feedback: Theory and practice Retrieved 31 October 2009 fromRehbein, J. (1984): Beschreiben, Berichten und Erzählen. In: Ehlich, Konrad (ed.): Erzählen in der Schule. Tübingen: Narr,Swales, J.M. (1990): Genre analysis: English in academic and research settings. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990.Swales, J. M. & C. B. Feak (2009a): Abstracts and the Writing of Abstracts. Ann Arbor: Michigan Series in English for Academic & Professional Purposes.Swales, J. M & C. B. Feak (2009b): Academic Writing for Graduate Students: Essential Tasks and Skills: A Course for Nonnative Speakers of English (English for Specific Purposes. Ann Arbor: Michigan Series in English for Academic & Professional Purposes.Tait, A. (2000): Planning student support for open and distance learning. Open Learning,15(3),