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Raphael Cohen-Almagor 21.04.20141. Lecture Plan Five sections: Introduction Terror Racism and Hate Crime-facilitating speech Child-pornography 21.04.20142.

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Presentation on theme: "Raphael Cohen-Almagor 21.04.20141. Lecture Plan Five sections: Introduction Terror Racism and Hate Crime-facilitating speech Child-pornography 21.04.20142."— Presentation transcript:

1 Raphael Cohen-Almagor

2 Lecture Plan Five sections: Introduction Terror Racism and Hate Crime-facilitating speech Child-pornography

3 Lecture Plan Each section is separated by a poem Two were read during the inaugurations of Bill Clinton One was written (but not read) for Barack Obama for his Inauguration One was read for the Inauguration of Janet Napolitano, Governor of the State of Arizona One was written by me for this Inaugural Lecture. I thank Dr. Jane Thomas for reading the poems

4 My contribution

5 My contribution

6 6 content circumstances mannerן Speakers intentions

7 Relevant Theories Social Responsibility Moral panic The "democratic Catch" Incitement True threats Intimidation

8 The Internet The Internet contains the best products of humanity

9 9

10 Ufff…

11 Worse of Humanity Unfortunately, the Internet also contains the worse products of humanity: Child Pornography, Pedophilia Terror Racism, Hate speech and Holocaust denial Crime-facilitating speech

12 Relevant Factors History Culture Law

13 From Sitafa Harden / Glory in the Gathering Place For Barack Obama for his Inauguration Stand Mighty Nation, a witness to Nations That Strength is not a sword, nor Power tyranny The Inevitableness of Possibility prevails That which we have divulged has made us strong Sing! A chorus verse to a redemption song Rejoice, child! Rejoice into the Millennium O hear the Peoples voices joining in crescendo! Stand, Mighty Nation, a witness to Nations That We are One

14 Terror




18 September 11, 2001 September 11 and other terrorist operations were facilitated by the Internet.

19 E-jihad The term E-jihad refers to the way information technology is applied by groups such as al-Qaeda in order to organize logistics for their campaigns, through the application of and encrypted files, as well as a means for developing their own strategic intelligence

20 September 11, 2001 Members of Al Qaeda are sending each other thousands of messages in a password-protected section of agreed-upon websites Sometimes they simply take over legitimate sites In the wake of September 11, Internet providers shut down several sites associated with Dr. Sheikh Abdullah Azzam, mentor of bin Laden

21 Haganah (Defence) Haganah, a US-based pro-Zionist website run by Aaron Weisburd, tracks down jihadi sites and informs their ISPs that they are hosting a terrorist site, which usually ensures it is closed down immediately. Haganah has shut down more than 700 jihadi sites

22 jihadi websites Most jihadi websites have several sections. The most important and largest is usually the religion section, which contains fatwas explaining who can be targeted legitimately. Quranic references to jihad, the different ways jihad can be expressed, aspects of martyrdom, and online doctrinal consultations with religious sages

23 jihadi websites In the jihad section, would-be recruits are encouraged to join the battle. Some general advice is given, e.g., the best routes into Iraq, names and locations of sympathetic mosques in neighbouring countries. Galleries of martyr portraits are accompanied by their last wills and testaments, often in the form of a video

24 jihadi websites Most sites have IT section where contributors are urged to share their knowledge and develop new ways of using cyberspace to further the cause of jihad. The bulletin boards or chat rooms are by far the most popular forums on jihadi websites. Visitors can add comments or reply to ongoing conversations and debates

25 jihadi websites Many jihadi sites have a womens section where wives and mothers are urged to support their men in jihad and help them in the psychological battle against what one site described as that disease, the weakness which loves life and hates death

26 Use of Internet by Terrorists Providing Information (English, Arabic, other languages, according to the audience) Seeking Legitimacy Propaganda – use of cameras, chat rooms; Socialization and motivation - use chatrooms to create virtual community, and motivate people to take violent actions against the West. Seeking support

27 Use of Internet by Terrorists Spreading tactics – the first beheading in Iraq showed on the Internet motivated copy-cat actions in other countries. Beheading is not part of the culture and tradition in Thailand. The Internet facilitated this knowledge and idea. Instructions and online manuals Planning of activities and coordination Training how to build bombs – significant but not as the uses of propaganda and motivation

28 Use of Internet by Terrorists Facilitation – like us, terrorists use the Internet to organize their travel, to communicate, to find information. Most fund raising is done person to person – going to an individual and ask for money. Some Internet sites were used to raise money, but this is not a prevalent phenomenon. Recruitment – a little bit. Not significant Cyber-terrorism

29 From Inaugural Poem/ Maya Angelou 20 January 1993, For Bill Clintons Inauguration There is a true yearning to respond to The singing River and the wise Rock. So say the Asian, the Hispanic, the Jew The African and Native American, the Sioux, The Catholic, the Muslim, the French, the Greek The Irish, the Rabbi, the Priest, the Sheikh, The Gay, the Straight, the Preacher, The privileged, the homeless, the Teacher. They hear. They all hear The speaking of the Tree. Today, the first and last of every Tree Speaks to humankind. Come to me, here beside the River. 29

30 Racism Some 70,000 racist and hateful sites

31 From Speech to Action Three Aryan supremacists, Benjamin Smith, Richard Baumhammers, and James W. von Brunn who in 1999, 2000 and 2009 respectively went on racially motivated shooting sprees after being exposed (von Brunn also contributed) to Internet racial propaganda. Smith regularly visited the World Church of the Creator website, a notorious racist and hateful organization. He said: "It wasn't really 'til I got on the Internet, read some literature of these groups that… it really all came together.

32 The Zundelsite Women Dined and Danced in Auschwitz No gas chambers ever existed People died in WWII, some were Germans, some Jews

33 Racism & Holocaust Denial In Canada, the Zundelsite and other hateful sites were shut down. Is law the appropriate way to fight against such speech? Education? What about accessing such material in libraries and schools? The importance of historical context

34 Historical Context and National Boundaries Yahoo! maintained auction sites via which third parties offered, among other items, Nazi memorabilia for sale. In 2000, anti-hate campaigners based in France commenced legal proceedings against Yahoo!, alleging violation of French penal laws prohibiting the public display of Nazi uniforms, insignia or emblems within French borders. The Supreme Court of Paris asserted jurisdiction over Yahoo! because its auction sites could be accessed in France; The court ruled that the US company must take such measures as will dissuade and render impossible access to auction sites selling Nazi paraphernalia and any other sites containing pro-Nazi propaganda, and awarded civil damages to the organizations that instigated the action

35 The Council of Europe The Council of Europe has adopted a measure that would criminalize Internet hate speech, including hyperlinks to pages that contain offensive content. The provision, which was passed in 2002 by the council's decision-making body (the Committee of Ministers), updates the 2001 European Convention on Cybercrime.provisionConvention on Cybercrime

36 The Council of Europe Specifically, the amendment bans "any written material, any image or any other representation of ideas or theories, which advocates, promotes or incites hatred, discrimination or violence, against any individual or group of individuals, based on race, colour, descent or national or ethnic origin, as well as religion if used as pretext for any of these factors."

37 American Legal Boundaries True Threats, intimidation Incitement to murder How the Internet is used to scare people? Case law

38 Date: Fri, 20 Sep :58: From: "Mother Fucker (Hates Asians)" To: {recipient list omitted to protect privacy of individuals} Subject: FUck You Asian Shit Hey stupid fucker As you can see in the name, I hate Asians, including you. If it werent for asias [sic] at UCI, it would be a much more popular campus. You are responsible for ALL the crimes that occur on campus. YOU are responsible for the campus being all dirt. YOU ARE RESPONSIBLE. Thats why I want you and your stupid ass comrades to get the fuck out of UCI. IF you dont I will hunt all of you down and Kill your stupid asses. Do you hear me? I personally will make it my life carreer [sic] to find and kill everyone one [sic] of you personally. OK?????? Thats how determined I am. Get the fuck out. Mother Fucker (Asian Hater) Machado

39 Shutting Down Websites Jouhari v. Wilson US Dept. of Housing & Urban Development, Jouhari and Pilar Horton v. Ryan Wilson and ALPHA HQ, July 19,

40 Jouhari Next to Jouharis picture, the ALPHA HQ website stated, "Traitors like this should beware, for in our day, they will hung from the neck from the nearest tree or lamp post. The website referred to Jouhari's daughter as "mongrel," listed various types of guns, information where to obtain various weapons, and provided a bomb recipe under the picture of Jouhari's office. s/oalj/cases/fha/pdf/wilson.pdf s/oalj/cases/fha/pdf/wilson.pdf

41 Jouhari Wilson was charged by the Pennsylvania Commonwealth's Attorney General with threats, harassment, and ethnic intimidation. The site was removed from the Internet, and the court issued an injunction against the defendant and his organization barring them from displaying certain messages on the Internet

42 Planned Parenthood v. American Coalition of Life Activists

43 Legitimate v. Illegitimate Speech

44 The Deadly Dozen

45 The Nuremberg Files

46 Shutting Down Websites

47 Arguments for and against Shutting Down Websites Against Shutting Down: Free expression Futility – mirror sites, different servers Source of information for security officers Difficult to track down sites, hence there is interest to keep them viable For Shutting Sites: facilitate criminal activity; Scope of audience: An American server cannot be equated to a server in Yemen

48 Shutting Down Websites From discussions with security experts I gather this is not the preferred option. They would like to keep an open eye on such sites

49 From Miller Williams / Of History and Hope The children. The children. And how does our garden grow? With waving hands -- oh, rarely in a row -- and flowering faces. And brambles, that we can no longer allow. Who were many people coming together cannot become one people falling apart. Who dreamed for every child an even chance cannot let luck alone turn doorknobs or not. Whose law was never so much of the hand as the head cannot let chaos make its way to the heart. President Clinton's Inauguration

50 Crime-Facilitating Speech Assassination – Hit Man How to kill your wife -to-kill-your-wife-and-get-away.html Rape Rape drugs Silencers Encryption Use of proxis

51 Bomb Making On March 23, 1996, the Terrorist's Handbook was posted on the Web, including instructions on how to make a powerful bomb. The same bomb was used in the Oklahoma City bombing. Deputy Assistant Attorney General Robert Litt, of the U.S. Justice Department's Criminal Division, observed that only hours after the Oklahoma City bombing, someone posted on the Internet directions -- including a diagram -- explaining how to construct a bomb of the type that was used in that tragic act of terrorism

52 Crime-facilitating Speech How to become a successful contractor? How to tempt kids to bed? Bomb making

53 RICE v. PALADIN ENTERPRISES Paladin Press publishes the book Hit Man Lawrence Horn hires James Perry to kill Horns family so he may collect his disabled sons $2million+ legal settlement Both Horn and Perry are found guilty of charges against them. Surviving family sues Paladin Press for aiding and abetting Perry and Horn in the triple murder

54 Publication of books Should there be limits on books publication? Does the mode of publication make a difference? Addressing legal lacuna

55 Cryptome welcomes documents for publication that are prohibited by governments worldwide, in particular material on freedom of expression, privacy, cryptology, dual-use technologies, national security, intelligence, and secret governance -- open, secret and classified documents

56 US Nuclear Weapons Storage Kwajalein, Marshall Islands

57 Our Children/Raphael Cohen-Almagor Children are unconditional Love Children are what you see in yourself Before the grudges of Life. Their smile your joy Their pain your aches Their present our future. Beautiful fragile snow flakes White, pure and true Treasure like blue deep ocean gem. Treasure before they turn gray and sour upon meeting cold and quiet Hard surface of life

58 Beware of the bad bad wolf He is lurking there all ears and teeth Cunningly watching before making his move. Sharp eyes to track his prey Fine smell to make you pray Lucid words just what they expected him to say. Written for the occasion of this Inaugural Lecture

59 Child Pornography Pornographers are always among the first to recognize and exploit the potential of each new wave of communication technology, from the printing press and early photography to film and video, and now the Internet Most states prohibit by their criminal law the production, promotion, sale, exhibition, or distribution of photographs or videos of children engaged in any sexual activity

60 Child Pornography The internet features of accessibility, privacy and low cost serve to encourage some offences. Child pornography is often used by offenders to groom children by normalizing sexual activity with children and breaking down inhibitions, or to blackmail a child into desired behaviour by threatening to expose their use of pornography. The saturation of the internet with such material may serve to normalize this behaviour and probably makes it easier to objectify children as sexual artifacts. Pornography is also thought to reinforce a persons sexual attraction to children

61 Child Pornography Social-networking sites have been shown to attract sexual predators looking to take advantage of naïve young people. Launched in 2004, MySpace has swiftly become one of the biggest hits in the history of the Internet. Crimes as serious as murder and rape have been linked to teens using the site. There is a strong link between those who collect images and those who molest children

62 Identity Child pornographers conceal their true identity by means of proxies, false flag addresses, the use of which means that the host site will not be able to identify a visitors true IP. They will never use their own credit card to pay for photos or videos. Some users succeed in hacking into a pay server, stealing another persons credit card, but this route is only for the truly ingenious

63 How Child Pornographers Work? A person has a collection of several thousand child porn images He likes to share them First, he obtains a proxy that conceals his name and location and acquires a new account under a false name from an anonymous provider, likely in a third world nation: both are easy to do. With these bogus credentials, he opens an account that permits him to set up a home page on an innocent and aboveboard public server such as,

64 How Child Pornographers Work? Unknown to the provider, the person loads how many photos he wants The site is of no use to anyone as yet, in that nobody is likely to stumble across it by accident Our generous child-pornographer announces the posting of the series on the Maestro board or one of its counterparts, where the message is read and acknowledged gratefully by other loli fans Duly alerted, consumers then flock to the site advertised, which may be based in any of twenty countries, and then download the pictures. The images will exist at that site only for a few hours before they are removed and the site ceases to exist

65 How Child Pornographers Work? The best way to discover child-pornographers activity is by discerning a site that suddenly attracts thousands of hits within a few hours Sometimes money changes hands and videos are sold, but many sites that demand payment for access are bogus, and anyone gullible enough to pay will, if he is lucky, just lose the price of admission; if he is less fortunate, he will have earned a visit from the police

66 How Child Pornographers Work? In 2009, Swiss police uncovered an internet child pornography network spanning 78 countries and involving at least 2,000 IP internet addresses. An inquiry was launched after a tip-off from Interpol about a Swiss website being used as a forum for illegal child pornography films. The site was officially devoted to hip hop music but was used to access videos of child pornography via secret codes

67 How Child Pornographers Work? The authorities had been monitoring the website for some time. Dozens of arrests and several convictions have been made as a result of the investigation, which began in May The site's designer was apparently not aware what it was being used for and was cleared of any involvement in the ring

68 Collections The vast majority of people who post or distribute pictures do so out of non-economic motives The sense for completion or perfection is particularly marked in child porn collecting. Hobbyists seek unbroken series of the various photo shoots such as KG or Tiny Americans, and they pride themselves on their achievement in seeking out and amassing items

69 Encryption The careful child-pornographers use encryption when they exchange images Without the key, it is very difficult to decode the image Encryption is the best friend of all people involved in illegal activities: Child-pornographers, terrorists and criminals

70 Remedies Education Parental Supervision Physical-Geographical Control (at home, in libraries) Filters Denying Legitimacy ISPs Liability

71 Remedies Need for more youth education (like the Partners Against Hate program), Promotion of tolerance, Exposing of hate, International cooperation between governments as well as between governments and Internet Service Providers

72 Remedies Business Ban International Cooperation: Working Group on Internet Governance Legislation and Precedents Monitoring Websites Removing Criminal Websites CleaNet

73 Remedies Introducing a different rationale: Instead of free highway, social responsibility

74 The Threats of the Internet Global solution for global problem Filters Business ban Individual/ ISPs Whos Responsible?

75 From Alberto Ríos/In Us This Day Sometimes, we are brutal and dark green. We are the fishhook thorns on the wild cactus. But sometimes as well, we are the sky itself, That great blue living room filled with endless space In every direction there is to see. We are, As things turn out, the answer and the problem both. Every day we must choose our suit of clothes

76 We are in a border time, The border between countries, between centuries, The border between yesterday and tomorrow, What we have been and what we are going to be. We are a state of many languages, many cultures. We must translate this into a state with many ideas. Let us choose the best from this treasury of dreams. Let us create a future We would want to speak in any language. We should not try to predict the future Instead, let us make it, and let us make it our own. Governor On the occasion of the Inauguration of Janet Napolitano Governor of the State of Arizona January 2003

77 Thank you

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