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The Continua of Multilingual Education and the Basque educational context Jasone Cenoz.

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Presentation on theme: "The Continua of Multilingual Education and the Basque educational context Jasone Cenoz."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Continua of Multilingual Education and the Basque educational context Jasone Cenoz

2 Outline of the presentation 1. Definitions and typologies of multilingual education 2. The continua of multilingual education 3. Examples of different types of multilingual schools 4. Conclusions

3 1. Definitions and typologies of multilingual education

4 Definitions of bi/multilingual education Use of two or more languages as media of instruction (Skutnabb-Kangas & McCarty, 2007) The use of two (or more) languages of instruction at some point in a students school career. The languages are used to teach subject matter content rather than just the language itself (Cummins 2007)

5 Definitions of bi/multilingual education Ideally reserved for those schools and classrooms that teach some, most or all subject content through two languages (Baker, 2007) For a program to be deemed to be bilingual, the key is that both languages must be used as media of instruction and thus to deliver curriculum content (May 2007)

6 Beyond bilingual education Difficult to use all the languages as languages of instruction even if the school aims at developing multilingualism and multiliteracy In some cases the use of a minority as the language of instruction can result in balanced bilingualism because of the sociolinguistic context

7 Definition of multilingual education Multilingual education refers to schools that teach more than two languages and aim at multilingualism and multiliteracy

8 Typologies Advantage: can impose theoretical order and facilitate cross-community (Edwards, 2007) Disadvantage: static, reductionist, many situations do not fit in (Baker, 2006; Martin-Jones, 2007)

9 Typologies of multilingual education More diversity: languages involved, program designs and sociolinguistic variables. Ytsma (2001) already has 46 types just by looking at three variables

10 2. The Continua of Multilingual Education

11 New book: Cenoz, J. (2009) Towards Multilingual Education Bristol: Multilingual Matters

12 Continua of multilingual education Represent the infinity and fluidity of movement along each of the continua (Hornberger, 2007) The features of multilingual education can be represented in a model based on continua

13 Continua of multilingual education: Sociolinguistic MICRO Less multilingual More multilingual Parents Siblings Peers Neighbours

14 Continua of multilingual education: Sociolinguistic MACRO Less multilingual More multilingual Speakers Status Media Landscape

15 Continua of multilingual education: Educational SUBJECT Less multilingual More multilingual LANGUAGE OF INSTRUCTION Less multilingual More multilingual

16 Continua of multilingual education Educational TEACHER Less multilingual More multilingual SCHOOL CONTEXT Less multilingual More multilingual

17 Continua of multilingual education: Linguistic distance Less distant More distant

18 3. Examples of different types of multilingual schools

19 Basque Country Lauro Ikastola. Basque-medium ikastola, Spanish speaking area, English additional language of instruction St Patricks English school. English- medium, Basque spoken by 30%, Spanish and Basque additional languages of instruction.

20 Basque Country Sociolinguistics-micro level: parents, siblings, peers, neighbours Sociolinguistics-macro level: speakers, status, media, landscape Educational: subject, language of instruction, teachers, school context Linguistic distance

21 Lauro Ikastola and European Schools Sociolinguistics-micro level: parents, siblings, peers, neighbours Sociolinguistics-macro level: speakers, status, media, landscape Educational: subject, language of instruction, teachers, school context Linguistic distance

22 Lauro Ikastola and Nizamia school in Mysore Sociolinguistics-micro level: parents, siblings, peers, neighbours Sociolinguistics-macro level: speakers, status, media, landscape Educational: subject, language of instruction, teachers, school context Linguistic distance

23 4. Conclusions

24 Continua of multilingual education The interaction of linguistic, sociolinguistic and educational variables The complexity of education by including different types of variables The dynamics of education

25 Continua of multilingual education Tool to describe different types of multilingual education Can accommodate the most typical cases of multilingual education Schools to analyze their own situation

26 Eskerrik asko! Thank you! ¡Gracias!


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