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English as an additional language in ITE (4 th edition – 2010) Raymonde Sneddon University of East London.

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Presentation on theme: "English as an additional language in ITE (4 th edition – 2010) Raymonde Sneddon University of East London."— Presentation transcript:

1 English as an additional language in ITE (4 th edition – 2010) Raymonde Sneddon University of East London

2 The context The NQT survey: 20 to 25 % confidence in teaching bilingual pupils rising to 34% for primary and 38% for secondary NQTs in 2009 TTA initiatives: Multiverse: bilingual and multilingual learners: extensive resources on site NALDIC ITTSEAL site based resources commissioned for EAL in ITE, including exemplars of good practice.

3 Why theory? Baker: Foundations of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism Key issues that lead to underachievement: Misunderstandings about bilingualism leading to low expectations Establishing what pupils already know Assuming pupils are fully proficient when they can communicate in English Analysing the language demands of the curriculum Giving students long term strategies to meet individual needs in the context of changing policy and practice

4 A theoretical framework Jim Cummins The Common Underlying Proficiency The surface features (phonology, syntax, vocabulary) are clearly distinct in L1 and L2 and learned in communicative situations General cognitive skills that underpin language operate from a central function – cognitive academic skills and concepts transfer from one language to another.

5 Common Underlying Proficiency Cummins, 1984

6 The Threshold model Issues in bilingualism and cognition The CUP model doesn’t explain the different achievement levels of, for ex. Canadian English speakers immersed in French and Turkish speakers immersed in English in the UK “the levels of proficiency bilingual children attain in their two languages may be an important intervening variable mediating the effects of bilingualism on children’s cognitive and academic development”

7 The Threshold Model

8 Conversational Fluency Refers to the ability to carry on a conversation in familiar face-to-face situations Involves high frequency words and simple grammatical constructions Second language learners generally develop conversational fluency with a year or two of exposure to the new language in school or in the environment.

9 Academic Language Proficiency The ability to understand and produce increasingly complex oral and written language Low frequency words (from Greek and Latin sources), complex syntax and abstract expressions not used in everyday language Second language learners need a minimum of 5 (and commonly 7) years exposure to academic English to catch up with the moving target of native-speaker norms

10 The developmental interrelationship between language proficiency and academic achievement

11 Additive and Subtractive Bilingualism Additive bilingualism is found in situations where both languages have high status in the pupil’s family and community and there is no danger of one language replacing another Subtractive bilingualism is more likely to occur in pupils from minority linguistic communities where the first language is not valued in the wider community, and may even be devalued by the family and the individuals concerned

12 From Theory to Practice: Applications in the Classroom A solid foundation in the first language is beneficial to the learning of a second Teachers very commonly overestimate pupils’ skills in English when they have acquired conversational language skills Support is needed to develop the academic proficiency and this needs to be underpinned by a cognitively challenging speaking and listening curriculum and be strongly related to literacy (a recent focus for Ofsted research and inspections) For current policy in practice: PNS: Learning and teaching bilingual pupils in the primary years SNS: Ensuring the Attainment of pupils learning English as an additional language (2007)

13 Using the EAL task file Introduction: when and where to carry out the tasks Read p 4/5 in pairs Setting task 1: discussing and sharing experience Using personal experience in the classroom

14 Planning for EAL across the curriculum In pairs (or bigger groups if seating allows): read the notes on p10-12 &14-15 of the EAL booklet and look at the pro-forma for tasks 5 and 6 (primary) read the notes on p 9-11 &13-14 of the EAL booklet and look at the pro-forma for tasks 5 and 6 (secondary) This is designed to accompany a lesson plan to make it fully accessible and appropriately challenging for learners of EAL Ask questions, raise issues

15 1: Key factors that enable bilingual learners to develop their English Joint planning between mainstream and specialist staff; focus on the curriculum content and appropriate cognitive challenge; focus on the language demands of the task; Activities and scaffolding that enable pupils to rehearse language and prepare for writing

16 2: Key factors that enable bilingual learners to develop their English Opportunities to use and build on their first language skills, where appropriate; grouping of children to provide models for English and/or first language support continuing support with writing through, for example, the use of matrices for organising information and writing frames for more extended contributions.

17 TDA funded website resources for ITE

18 Using Multiverse Theoretical resources Policy: Aiming High documents Ofsted research and reports Specialist EAL material from the PNS and SNS: Learning and Teaching for Bilingual Children in the Primary Years and KS3 Access and Engagement Research: Gillborn & Mirza 2000, Cameron’s Writing at KS2 and at KS4/post 16 – Kenner’s work with early years Assessment: the QCA’s A Language in Common and critiques Parents, communities, complementary schools, community languages.

19 Parents and communities Local authority websites Resources Information about communities Complementary / mother tongue schools Our Languages Research and strategies for working successfully with parents of bilingual pupils

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