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Prices and price risk management along coffee chains Susan Newman Challenges and Prospects for Commodity Markets in the Global Economy A Workshop in Memory.

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Presentation on theme: "Prices and price risk management along coffee chains Susan Newman Challenges and Prospects for Commodity Markets in the Global Economy A Workshop in Memory."— Presentation transcript:

1 Prices and price risk management along coffee chains Susan Newman Challenges and Prospects for Commodity Markets in the Global Economy A Workshop in Memory of Alfred Maizels 19th September 2008 SOAS, University of London

2 Background Policy shifts and the debate around commodity issues Breakdown of Bretton Woods Collapse of multilateral price stabilisation schemes for commodities Liberalisation of agricultural markets in agro-commodity exporting LDCs under SAPs Emphasis on private risk management (PRM) strategies for the stabilisation of incomes Theoretical justifications for liberalisation and PRM-strategies Neoclassical economics: on derivatives markets: –Efficient Market Hypothesis –Arrow-Debrau –Implicit theory of price determination according to supply and demand. on commodity markets: –Horizontal conception of the market –Competitive markets –Prices governed by the interaction of supply and demand Assumed relationship between the derivatives and physical markets for commodities

3 Financialisation of commodity markets Financialisation can be broadly defined as the increasing role of financial motives, financial markets, financial actors and financial institutions in the operation of the domestic and international economies (Epstein 2005, p3). Dimensions of financialisation in the international commodity systems: –Increasing portfolio investment in commodities as an asset class –Increase in the volume of derivatives trading by physical traders for hedging as well as non-hedging purposes –Changes in the distribution of income along commodity chains that depends upon the ways in which heterogeneous chain actors engage with futures markets

4 Prices, price risk and price risk management in commodity chains Price risk management strategy Mechanism of price risk management Implications for upstream chain actors exposure to international price fluctuations Implications on the accumulation process Price to be fixed contracts together with hedging on derivatives markets Based on full exposure to price fluctuations and the offsetting of the risk through the purchase or sale of futures or options. Price fluctuations are passed upstream along the chain Possibility of earning financial rents associated with activities on derivatives markets. Forward contracts Transaction price set ahead of delivery date to reduce exposure to international price fluctuations The transmission of price volatility upstream along the chain is limited by the forward contract No possibility of earning financial rents associated with activities on derivatives markets. Income is derived along traditional avenues. Back to back selling Sell as rapidly as possible after purchasing coffee to limit the time period of the exposure to price fluctuations Price fluctuations are passed upstream along the chain No possibility of earning financial rents associated with activities on derivatives markets. Small and unstable margins earned along traditional avenues. Fairtrade, specialty and niche markets Market a differentiated product that does not depend as much on price movements on the futures market. Limits price volatility upstream. No possibility of earning financial rents associated with activities on derivatives markets. Small but stable margins earned along traditional avenues. Diversification Limit the reliance on income derived from any single product that may exhibit volatile prices Price fluctuations are passed upstream along the chain No possibility of earning financial rents associated with activities on derivatives markets

5 Case study The green coffee system

6 The structure of international green coffee system Coffee production –fragmented across a large number of countries across the tropics. –Diversity of production and marketing systems between producing countries –The major share of world coffee is produced by small holders International trading companies –Highly concentrated sector Coffee roasting companies –Highly concentrated sector

7 Proportion of total exports of green coffee from the top 10 coffee exporting countries in 2007 (Data Source: ICO 2008)

8 Market shares of the 5 top trading companies for green coffee in 2006 (Data source: ED&F Man Coffee Division, 2007 and ICO, 2006) Trading Company millions of 60 kg bags traded estimated share of the world market cumulative share of world market Volcafe (ED&F Man) % Neumann %31.55% Esteve (Ecom) %42.40% Olam %48.69% Noble * 55.71%54.41%

9 Market shares of the 5 top coffee roasting and/or manufacturing groups in 2006 (data source: ED&F Man Coffee Division, 2007 and ICO, 2006) Coffee Roaster/ Manufacturer millions of 60 kg bags traded estimated share of the world market cumulative share of world market Nestle % Kraft %28.12% Sara Lee89.14%37.26% Folger %42.75% Tchibo %46.29%

10 The structure of the Ugandan coffee marketing system prior to liberalisation in 1990/1 after liberalisation

11 Market shares of the top 10 coffee exporters in Uganda - Oct/Sept 2005/06 (adapted from UCDA annual report, 2005/6) EXPORTER% Market ShareType of company IndividualCumulative GRAND TOTAL100.02,002,324 1Kyagalanyi Coffee Ltd Subsidiary of coffee division of a large diversified commodity trading MNC. * 2Kawacom (U) Ltd Subsidiary of a coffee trading MNC 3Pan Afric Impex Ltd Ugandan office of a Sudanese, regional coffee trading and transportation company, supplying the Sudanese market in the main. 4Ugacof Ltd Foreign owned coffee trading company 5Great Lakes Foreign owned coffee trading company 6Olam (U) Ltd Ugandan office of vertically integrated diversified commodity trading MNC 7Ibero (U) Ltd Subsidiary of a large coffee trading MNC 8Job Coffee Local export company 9Lake Land Holding Ltd Local export company 10Nakana Coffee Factory Local export company

12 The structure of the Tanzanian coffee marketing system between 1994/5 and 2003 prior to liberalisation in 1994/5 since 2003

13 Market shares of the top 10 coffee exporters in Tanzania –Oct/Sep 2005/06 (Data source: TCB 2007)

14 An investigation of prices and price risk management along coffee chains How do the prevailing market structures mediate the processes of price transmission along coffee chains? To what extent are the structures of different segments along coffee chains shaped by the processes of price risk management? What are the implications of this restructuring of coffee markets in terms of income generation of different market actors along the chain? What are the implications of this restructuring on the sustainability of the coffee system?

15 Private coffee marketing chains in Uganda

16 Annual coffee production in Uganda (Data Source: ICO 2007)

17 Cooperative coffee marketing chains in Tanzania Small holder coffee producer Primary society International Exporter Cooperative Union Auction Small holder coffee producer Farmers group International Exporter Auction Small holder coffee producer Farmers group International Exporter Farmers group alliance Auction

18 Annual production of arabica coffee in Kilimanjaro region, Tanzania, since liberalisation in 1994/5 (Data source: Tanzania Coffee Board, 2007)

19 Annual coffee production in Tanzania (Data Source: ICO 2007)

20 Thank you for your attention


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