Presentation on theme: "Vincent Raeburn Linlithgow Academy Malcolm McDonald Bathgate Academy Linlithgow Academy."— Presentation transcript:
Vincent Raeburn Linlithgow Academy Malcolm McDonald Bathgate Academy Linlithgow Academy
How rivers erode HYDRAULIC ACTION The force of the water weakens and breaks up the rocks ABRASION The material carried in the river wears away the river bed ATTRITION As the pebbles carried by the river crash into each other,they become smaller and rounder SOLUTION The water in the river dissolves the minerals in the rocks
How rivers transport Rolling stones along the river bed.( needs lots of energy) TractionSuspension Clay sized particles are carried along by the river flow Saltation Sand sized particles bounce along the riverbed Solution Some minerals are dissolved by the riverwater river flow
River Basin Source of River Aye Confluence of River Aye and tributary Tributary of River Aye Flood plain Mouth of River Aye Sea Estuary of River Aye Watershed of River Aye (boundary between basins)
Source of river Upper Course Middle Course Lower Course
FEATURES OF THE UPPER COURSE V-SHAPED VALLEYS WITH INTERLOCKING SPURS POT HOLES ON RIVER BED WATERFALLS AND RAPIDS
Formation of a waterfall Soft rock Hard rock Steep sides ( gorge ) Vertical erosion Forms plunge pool Undercutting erodes the softer rock forming an overhang The overhang Eventually collapses The process starts again Eroded rock Waterfall Retreats upstream
PLUNGE POOL UNDERCUTTING OF SOFT ROCK OVERHANG WATERFALL RETREATS.. UPSTREAM..
The River Avon has smoothed off parts of this hard igneous rock... What is this process called?
Gentle valley sides Flat floodplain Layers of silt Deposited during floods Coarse material Forms natural levees River is actually flowing above The floodplain !! Levees is often artificially strengthened
CharacteristicsUpper CourseMiddle CourseLower Course Slope Width Depth Straightness Load Main work Valley width Type of load usually steep narrow shallow winding little large/small angular erosion transportation quite steep quite wide quite deep meandering some medium/small rounded Transportation narrow gentle quite wide wide deep big meanders lots small+ rounded transportation deposition wide