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Rivers: Profiles & Landforms Higher Geography The Hydrosphere.

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Presentation on theme: "Rivers: Profiles & Landforms Higher Geography The Hydrosphere."— Presentation transcript:


2 Rivers: Profiles & Landforms Higher Geography The Hydrosphere

3 River Profile Source of river Upper Course Middle Course Lower Course

4 River speed Fastest? ?

5 Reality Landscapes have been modified by ice. Waterfalls and rapids interrupt smooth profiles.

6 Upper Course Lower Course

7 Contrasting river landforms from source to mouth Channel features Valley features Long profile

8 Upper Course - Channel features River channel is rocky. Covered with various shapes and sizes of boulder. Discharge is low. Under flood conditions rivers energy is expended on vertical erosion with hydraulic action and corrosion processes at work. Potholes may form.

9 Vertical erosion

10 Pothole formation

11 Upper Course - Valley features Valley sides are steep and form a V shaped cross section. Interlocking spurs. V shaped valley Steep sides Zig-zag bends (interlocking spurs)

12 V – shaped valley Form due to a combination of the following processes: Vertical erosion by the river itself. Physical weathering (eg: frost action) which provides debris to move down slope. Mass movement (inc: soil creep & landslides) to move debris down slope.

13 Interlocking spurs River flows around interlocking spurs

14 Upper Course – Long Profile Generally the gradient is steep and the profile is uneven, particularly where waterfalls and rapids form.

15 Waterfall formation Hard Rock – Lava Soft Rock – Sandstone or Conglomerates Soft rock is easy to erode, but the hard rock is resistant. So over time a ledge develops.

16 Waterfall formation The water rushes over the ledge and erodes a plunge pool by abrasion and hydraulic action. Hard Rock – Lava Soft Rock – Sandstone or Conglomerates

17 Waterfall formation The ledge collapses into the plunge pool, where the debris helps to speed up the erosion. Hard Rock – Lava Soft Rock – Sandstone or Conglomerates

18 Waterfall formation The process is repeated and the waterfall gradually retreats upstream, carving out a gorge. Hard Rock – Lava Soft Rock – Sandstone or Conglomerates



21 Formation of rapids Resistant rockLess Resistant Rock

22 Middle Course - Channel features Channel is now wider and has smoother banks and bed compared to the upper course.

23 Middle Course - Valley features River erosional energy is now increasingly expended horizontally rather than vertically. Lateral erosion by the rivers meanders broadens the valley floor into a narrow flood plain. Meanders gradually shift their course downstream.

24 Middle Course 1

25 Middle Course 2

26 Meanders A meander starts as a slight bend: Water flows faster on the outer curve of the bend (more energy), and slowest on the inner curve (less energy). So the outer bank gets eroded while material is deposited at the inner bank. Over time the outer bank gets worn away (river cliff) and the inner one builds up (river beach). The bend grows into a meander.

27 Meanders (refer to previous notes and diagrams) Alternating series of irregularities develop Pools – deeper stretches of slow moving water Riffles – shallower section of faster flow, flowing above coarser material River develops a winding or sinuous course Faster flow on outer bend results in erosion and formation of River Cliff Slower flow on inside of bend results in deposition and formation of Slip-off Slope

28 Meanders Meanders develop and migrate laterally and downstream Helicoidal flow further assists meander formation and transports sediment from river cliff to the slip-off slope on the inside of the next bend.

29 MEANDERS Flood plain Meanders Most erosion on the outside of the bend.. Fastest flow Possible break through point Possible ox-bow lake

30 Meanders

31 Middle Course - Profile

32 Gradient is now less steep. Overall the profile is smooth – but an outcrop of resistant rock could still cause a waterfall.

33 Lower Course - Channel features The channel is now at its broadest and deepest. Bedload is carried entirely in suspension and is solution. Deposition now dominates – particularly during floods. Erosion also occurs – in the formation of meanders

34 Lower Course – Valley features Thanks to lateral erosion the valley sides may now be several kilometres away. Typically it may also contain the following features: Floodplain & natural levées Braided channels Meanders Oxbow lakes Estuaries and deltas

35 Lower Course

36 Natural levées As the river floods, sediment is dropped over all the flooded areas but most falls along the river channel itself. This sediment raises the height of the banks is flooding occurs regularly Levees themselves do not prevent flooding because as the banks are raised, more sediment is dropped on the river bed, raising the water level.

37 Gentle valley sides Flat floodplain Layers of silt Deposited during floods Coarse material Forms natural levees River is actually flowing above The floodplain !! Levees is often artificially strengthened

38 Braided channels Formed by the choking of the main channel by the deposition of a considerable amounts of the river load. The channel splits into several smaller channels which flow around fresh islands of deposited material before rejoining.

39 Braided channels


41 Ox-bow lakes Downstream migration of meanders produce pronounced meander loops which may form ox-bow lakes during flood conditions 1 Lateral erosion on outside of bends of pronounced meander 2 Narrow neck of meander gradually becomes narrower 3 Neck is cut through by river during floods and river forms new straighter channel 4 Cut-off is sealed by deposition 5 Ox-bow lake begins to silt up (Core Higher, P 65, Fig 3.36)

42 Oxbow lakes An Oxbow lake starts as a meander. During a flood the river cuts across the meander, forming a new channel. Sediment is deposited along the sides of the new channel. The loops gets sealed off and an oxbow lake forms. The water in it becomes stagnant. The lake will remain sealed of until either the river floods into it or it dries out.

43 Oxbow lakes



46 Estuaries and deltas An estuary is where a river meets the sea (it is tidal). Deltas are essentially the seaward extension of the floodplain and form where tides are too weak to remove deposit sediment.

47 Team work and Alloa

48 tributaries ox-bow lake meander V shaped valley Steep Valley sides Flood plain Rivers on OS Maps

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