Presentation on theme: "Computing Intermediate 2 Multimedia Technology. The Development Process and Multimedia Applications The Software Development Process and Multimedia Applications."— Presentation transcript:
The Development Process and Multimedia Applications The Software Development Process and Multimedia Applications Analysis: The main purpose of this stage is to be absolutely clear about what the multimedia project is supposed to do.
The Development Process and Multimedia Applications Design: Producing a detailed plan which defines what the different parts of the project are and how they are linked together.
The Development Process and Multimedia Applications The Software Development Process and Multimedia Applications Implementation: This is the point at which the multimedia authoring, or web-page authoring, package is used to turn the design into a working project.
The Development Process and Multimedia Applications The Software Development Process and Multimedia Applications Testing: A series of practical tests are carried out to check that the multimedia project functions properly. Documentation: User Guide and Technical Guide.
The Development Process and Multimedia Applications The Software Development Process and Multimedia Applications Evaluation: Checks that the finished application meets the users requirements. Includes an assessment of the HCI design. Maintenance: Fixing bugs and adapting the design to suit client needs and the demands of new technology.
Methodologies used in creation of multimedia applications Text editor: Creating simple web pages using HTML. WYSIWIG editors: Previewing applications under development to check that what you see is what you get. Multimedia authoring packages, e.g. Mediator Pro. Presentation software, e.g. PowerPoint.
Methodologies used to view multimedia applications Displaying multimedia applications in a browser. Displaying multimedia applications using a file player or viewer.
Methodologies used to view multimedia applications Multimedia application as an executable file
Bit-mapped Graphic Data Capturing still images using a digital camera Using a CCD to capture light coming in through a lens CCD charged coupled device: uses sensors to capture light Capturing images using a scanner: also uses CCD
Bit-mapped Graphic Data Storing graphics as a bit map: each pixel in the image is represented by a binary number. Uncompressed bit-map format: a file which holds a binary number for each pixel in an image. Large file size: main limitation of bit-map format. Need for compression: to relieve demands on storage and transmission times.
Bit-mapped Graphic Data Compression using GIF format Lossless compression: GIF format compresses graphic data without losing any information about the image. It compresses by encoding repeated patterns of data. Limited number of colours: limited to 2 8, 256 colours. Transparency: colours set as transparent let the background colours and patterns show through. Used for storing cartoons, and line drawings.
Bit-mapped Graphic Data JPEG Uses lossy compression: parts of the graphic are cut out, e.g. shades of colour. At low rates of compression this is not noticeable.
Bit-mapped Graphic Data JPEG JPEG format suitable for storing photographs and paintings.
Bit-mapped Graphic Data Trading quality for file size Resolution: increasing resolution increases the number of pixels, can improve the quality of a graphic but increases the file size. Colour depth: increasing colour depth increases the number of colours or shades of grey, can improve the quality of a graphic but increases the file size. Lossy compression: reduces file size and, providing the rate of compression is not too high, does not affect the quality of the graphic.
Bit-mapped Graphic Data Simple bit-map editing and creation software Painting programs Fill tool: a feature for pouring colour into a graphic. Paintbrush tool: for more precise application of colour.
Bit-mapped Graphic Data Main features of image editing programs Decrease resolution Alter colour depth Crop Alter brightness and contrast Insert graphic Re-size.
Bit-mapped Graphic Data Hardware for displaying 2D graphics CRT monitor: bulky, heavy, run on mains power, cost less than equivalent TFT screens. LCD and TFT screens: flat, light, need less power, more expensive than CRT.
Bit-mapped Graphic Data Hardware for displaying graphic data Need for graphics cards to store and process graphic data, relieving the main processor of the task.
Digitised Sound Data Hardware for capturing sound Microphone Sound cards: to sample, store and process audio data.
Digitised Sound Data Uncompressed sound data RAW: Uncompressed samples of sound waves 0101010101010101 1111111101010101 0011001100101011 1100101000110001 RIFF: Resource Interchange File Format WAV: Microsoft's format for sound files, part of RIFF
Digitised Sound Data Lossy compression: reduces file sizes by cutting out some of the data. MP3: uses lossy compression without noticeable loss of sound quality.
Digitised Sound Data Balancing file size and sound quality Sampling depth: increased sound depth = greater range of values = better sound quality and greater file size. Sampling frequency: The higher the sampling frequency, the better the sound quality, the greater the file size. Sound time: affects file size but not quality.
Digitised Sound Data Simple sound editing software Reducing sample frequency, e.g. from 44.1 KHz to 22.05 KHz, reduces file size and audio quality. Reducing sample depth, e.g. from 16 bits to 8 bits per sample, reduces file size and audio quality.
Digitised Sound Data Sound cards and playback: Sound cards needed to change the digital audio data into analogue signals to control output from speakers.
Video Data Hardware for capturing images Digital video camera Web cam
Video Data Storing video data Uncompressed format Uncompressed video data = Large file sizes 1 second of uncompressed wide-screen video can take up 53 Megabytes of storage AVI: Audio Visual Interleave, an uncompressed format.
Video Data Compressing video data MPEG-2 Lossy compression: cuts out unnecessary parts of a video clip
Video Data Compressing video data Using MP3 compression: Reduces file sizes With no noticeable loss of video quality.
Video Data Video quality and file size Colour depth: increasing colour depth improves quality and file sizes. Resolution: increasing resolution improves quality and increases file sizes. Frame rate: measured in frames per second, fps. 30fps is the rate for a video clip. Increasing frame rate increases file size. Lower frame rates reduce file size but make video clip jerky.
Video Data Video quality and file size Video time: increasing or reducing the time of a video is the obvious way to affect the file size. Quality of the display of the clip is not affected. Lossy compression: Using MP3 compression reduces file sizes without affecting quality.
Video Data Video editing software features and applications used with single video clips Cropping: cutting unwanted data from the beginning and end of a clip. Add effects, titles, sound tracks. The need for graphics cards to process and output video data.
Vector Graphics Data Basic features of vector graphics They are scalable: resolution independent. In a vector graphic individual objects can be edited. Graphics can be assembled by placing objects in layers.
Vector Graphics Data Common attributes of vector graphic objects Position Shape Size
Vector Graphics Data Common attributes of vector graphic objects Rotation Line Layer Fill
Vector Graphics Data Attributes of a 3D image Shape Position Size Rotation Texture
Vector Graphics Data Standard formats for vector graphics Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) format Scalable: resolution independent Vector: represents objects by defining a series of attributes
Vector Graphics Data Standard formats for vector graphics Virtual Reality Markup Language A standard language used to model and animate geometric shapes Used to define 3D environments for the WWW.
Synthesised Sound Data Musical Instrument Digital Interface: MIDI Common attributes of notes stored as MIDI data: –Instrument: defines which instrument is playing –Pitch: defines the height of the note –Volume: determines the amplitude –Duration: determines the length of the note.
Synthesised Sound Data Common attributes of notes stored as MIDI data Duration: determines the length of the note. Tempo: the speed at which a piece of music is played.
Implications: Multimedia Technologies Converging contemporary technologies Smartphone: merging technologies of a mobile phone and a laptop. Pocket PC: merging technologies of a laptop, mobile phone and desktop operating system and application software.
Implications of Multimedia Technologies Contemporary technologies Digital television: an interactive multimedia device which, because of the digital nature of its signals, is easily integrated into your digital computer and home networks.
Implications of Multimedia Technologies Contemporary technologies Virtual reality The ultimate multimedia experience where the user is immersed in the world of the computer and can journey through, and interact with, a computer generated 3- dimensional multimedia world.
Implications of Multimedia Technologies Immersive VR Output :Using speakers, stereo screens, headsets Input: sensors in gloves, headsets and suits