Presentation on theme: "Development cooperation in fragile situations – chance or utopia? Chances and risks of development cooperation in fragile situations, illustrated by the."— Presentation transcript:
Development cooperation in fragile situations – chance or utopia? Chances and risks of development cooperation in fragile situations, illustrated by the case study of Kosovo Mag. a Stephanie Altmann, Vienna (Paper written in cooperation with Mag. a Dr. a Ursula Werther-Pietsch)
Contents Introduction & Background Views of the state Fragility Donor engagement and state effectiveness in fragile situations Statenbuilding and Peacebuilding The Kosovo case Research findings
Introduction & Background I specific difficulties for actors of the international development community in fragile situations improvements achieved might not be carried forward without an adequate institutional environment implications for development cooperation: focus on strenghtening state institutions, -structures and –capacities stronger link of state- and peacebuilding
Views of the state I [M]odern states focus and answer the concerns and demands of their citizenries. (Rotberg 2004:2) State = complex construct, fulfilling a twofold role (cf. Ottaway 2007:11; cf. Schneckener 2006:9)
Views of the state II 4 main perspectives: functionalist formal international law sociological state as social practice (Jung 2008:38)
Fragility I multi-causal, multi-dimensional distinctive, context-specific (cf. McLoughlin 2010:17) violent conflict as a central factor = cause, symptom and consequence internal factors / external factors
Fragility II Definition? No consensus within the donor community so far Heterogenous group of states – one single term OECD Definition: States are fragile when state structures lack political will and/or capacity to provide basic functions needed for poverty reduction, development and to safeguard the security and human rights of their populations. (OECD, 2007, Principles for good international engagement in fragile states and situations) Resilience
Donor engagement and state effectiveness in fragile situations I shift in 2001- 09/11 – raising awareness, Millenium Development Goals (MDGs) focus on state-building in fragile situations after 2001 different ways of handling fragile situations during last two decades, following failed states doctrine emphasis on stabilization, security sector reform (SSR) and socio- economic recovery programs
Donor engagement and state effectiveness in fragile situations II legitimacy, political dialogue, state formation processes, human rights, rule of law, demobilization, disarmament and reintegration (DDR), transitional justice – acknowledged as essential to sustainable peace-building – addressed in lesser extent
Donor engagement and state effectiveness in fragile situations III Effective state? 10 functions, Institute of State Effectiveness (ISE) (Ghani/Lockhart/Carnahan 2006:111-115): - Monopoly on the legitimate use of force - Public administration - Management of public finances - Investments in human capital - Definition of a social contract, delineation of citizenship rights and duties - Infrastructure services - Creation of a market - Management of national and public assets - International relations, public borrowing - Rule of law
Statebuilding & Peacebuilding I peacebuilding: measures targeted to reduce the risk of lapsing or relapsing into conflict (OECD 2010) statebuilding: endogenous process, enhancing capacity, institutions and legitimacy of the state many interferences – many risks
Statebuilding & Peacebuilding II bridging Peacebuilding and Statebuilding (PBSB) is needed for efficiency reasons and looking at synergies/tensions between them requires sound conceptual foundations! Same goal – different emphasis
Peacebuilding and Statebuilding III PBSB interfere in the sphere of formerly internal domains external engagement in fragile situations has to involve measures that reach into the internal sovereignity and governance capacities of states reshaping relationship between states and their citizens (cf. Krause and Jütersonke)
Peacebuilding & Statebuilding IV PBSB Synergy? central tensions can be counterbalanced with essential similarities challenge is to translate theoretical similarities and aims into practically applicable approaches
Kosovo – political and historical aspects of statehood Despite their injections of huge diplomatic, security, financial and human resources into Kosovo over the past decade, it appears that the international community has not managed to support a process of laying the foundations of a strong state and a peaceful society. (Montanaro 2009:14)
Kosovo – political and historical aspects of statehood repeatedly conflicts over Kosovan geopolitical situation (importance for Serb and Albanian population) several significant phases in Kosovos path to becoming a state 1980ies: political discontent expressed in demonstrations, petitions and strikes (cf. Kramer/Dzihic 2006:16)
Kosovo – political and historical aspects of statehood non-violent resistance at the beginning; expressed by the emanation of a parallel state (until 1999) influence of traditions – scepticism against the state? 1999 – NATO war, Serbia finally lost control over Kosovo; UNMIK engagement under SCRES 1244
Kosovo – political and historical aspects of statehood Resolution 1244 was intended to: […] resolve the grave humanitarian situation in Kosovo […] and provide for the safe and free return of all refugees and displaced persons to their homes. (SCRES 1244/1999) outcome of UNMIK: negative peace
Kosovo – political and historical aspects of statehood Ahtisaari Plan for monitored independence, 2007 Declaration of independence on Feb. 18th 2008
Kosovo finally a state? State authority? Effectivity? ticking socio-economic bomb (Dzihic 2010) Legitimacy and trust in the government? Weaknesses of previous strategies of the engagement of the international community? positive peace?
Research findings I Main fields of interest: important aspects of statehood in the 21st century challenges, risks and opportunities/chances for development cooperation in fs principles of a context analysis principles for a donor guidance the nexus of state- and peacebuilding
Research findings II no templates for effectivity of the state specific characteristics in specific situations! context-dependent! stronger participation of the civil society in the process of finding those characteristics is crucial!
Research findings III main risk: doing harm massive financial aid for countries with highly uncertain political settlement – exacerbation of conflict! proper handling of the security situation! Statebuilding as political manner – sensible framework for approaches & enhanced donor cooperation! State is not a field for experiments!
Research findings IV sophisticated analysis of the context understand the politics and economic potential on the ground! main fragilities? shared donor analyses!
Research findings V lessons learned as contribution to the development of new and innovative approaches dilemmas of previous state-building attempts in Kosovo: rather international rule than assistance? lacking self-determination within the process of state-building refusal of international engagement circumvention of state-structures and systems in order to obtain successes
Research findings VI Statebuilding and Peacebuilding have to go hand in hand – but care has to be taken of the tensions and contradictions between them!
Conclusion different fields for donor action in fragile situations – potential for sustainable strengthening of state structures self-determination has to be a principle Stronger nexus of State- and Peacebuilding in post-conflict societies Changed understanding of Peacebuilding and forms of violence (e.g. structural)
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