Presentation on theme: "SO1506 Stratification & Social Inequality. Lecture Outline What is Social Stratification? Dimensions of Stratification Systems of Stratification The Founding."— Presentation transcript:
Lecture Outline What is Social Stratification? Dimensions of Stratification Systems of Stratification The Founding Fathers & Social Stratification
What is Social Stratification? The arrangement of individuals into hierarchical strata within society Persistent over time Universal but variable in form Supported by cultural belief Boundaries & Social Closure Stratification & Social Inequality
Dimensions of Stratification Race & Ethnicity Gender Age Social Class
Dimensions of Stratification Race & Ethnicity Origins of Race The Race Logic Segregation: South Africa &The USA
Dimensions of Stratification Gender Inequality Patriarchy Emancipation
Dimensions of Stratification Age Discrimination: Over the Hill or the rise of Grey Power? Other: Sexuality, Disability Social Class
Forms of Stratification: Slavery Slavery: The Engine of Empires? Slavery in the 15 th -19 th Century: Colonial Empires The European/New World Slave Trade
Systems of Stratification: The Estate System (Feudalism) Serfdom: Feudal Obligation in the Middle Ages The Black Death & The Statute of Labourers The French Revolution
Contemporary Slavery Disposable People (Bales,1999) People Trafficking Gangmasters
Systems of Stratification: Caste Caste: Inherited ascribed social status India, Reincarnation and Social Status Marriage & Caste USA and Caste?
Systems of Stratification: Social Class (UK) The Upper Classes The Middle Classes The Working Classes & Underclass (Runciman, 1990) 10% 35% 55% Modern Societies Non-ascribed disparities in income, health, education, housing, wealth, power, status and prestige.
Karl Marx1818-1883 "The (written) history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles. (Marx, 1848) The Bourgeoisie (Capital) and the Proletariat (Labour)
Max Weber1864-1920 Social Inequality Economic Class Social Status Prestige Power
Emile Durkheim1858-1917 Stratification is the outcome of individuals position within the division of labour, with position and rewards distributed according to ability and scarcity of skills and aptitudes.
Lecture 2 Class, Inequality & The Market Society The UK (& USA)
Lecture Outline Social Inequality in the UK (& USA) The Persistence of Stratification Legitimation & Ideology Culture & The Reproduction of Inequality Towards A Classless Society?
Social Class Inequalities Nominally Open Stratification System Inequalities of: Income Wealth Power Prestige
Social Inequality: The 19 th & Early 20 th Century UK: Two Nations (Disraeli, 1845) USA: How the Other Half Lives (Riis,1890)
Social Inequality: The 19 th & Early 20 th Century Citizenship T.H. Marshall (1950): Civil, Political & Social Rights Trade Unions Chartism The Early Welfare State
Social Inequality: Mid 20 th Century The 1929 Crash The Great Depression 1930s WWII 1939 - 1945
Social Inequality: Mid 20 th Century The Post War Settlement & The New Deal Youve Never Had It So Good (Harold Macmillan, British Prime Minister, 1951)
Social Inequality: 1970s - Present Early 1970s Economic Crises (Oil & Stagflation) The End of the Settlement: Thatcherism & Reaganomics The Marketization of Society
Social Mobility Argument: The Gap (between rich and poor) doesnt matter if no ones starving and there is high social mobility. BUT: Absolute Poverty & Relative Deprivation (how does this affect people?) Social Mobility: The extent to which individuals can rise and fall within a society. Open societies: High Mobility Closed societies: Low Mobility Most mobile developed nations: Scandinavian countries & Canada Least mobile: UK, USA (OECD)
The Persistence of Social Inequality Ideology Legitimation Institutionalization Socialization
Ideology? Religion The Horatio Alger Story The Bell Curve(The better off are naturally smarter) The Culture of Poverty Thesis The Davis/ Moore Thesis: Stratification as normal and functional (Meritocracy)
Pierre Bourdieu: Beyond the Economic Habitus & The Reproduction of Social Class Economic Capital Cultural Capital Social Capital
A Classless Society? Reduced Visibility of Working Class: Industry to Services Collapse of W/Class Community Embourgeoisment The Introduction of Gender/Ethnicity as complicating factor The Underclass
A Classless Society? Spatial Polarisation Community, The Lifestyle Enclave & The Gated Society: Ghettoization and Gentrification