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1 SIGN UP FOR TUTORIALS Please go to this website: Tutorial attendance is compulsory.

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Presentation on theme: "1 SIGN UP FOR TUTORIALS Please go to this website: Tutorial attendance is compulsory."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 SIGN UP FOR TUTORIALS Please go to this website: Tutorial attendance is compulsory

2 2 Education Consider macro or structuralist approaches Today: - Background - Functionalist Theories -Critical views re Hidden Curriculum Tomorrow: - Bernstein, Bourdieu

3 3 Structuralist Approaches Last term – more on individuals/groups Now – more structural - institutions, power relations, inequalities etc E.g. – consider – on education: -functions/roles of schools, Unis -power relations – who shapes educational institutions? Who gains from them?

4 4 Historical Background Education in Britain: -Compulsory since 1870s/1880 -Leaving age up from 10 to 16 -Mass higher/further education – 2000 – Scotland: 32% in universities, 19% in colleges

5 5 Continuing Inequalities Fee-paying schools keep advantages 70% rich kids enter University; under 10% in poorest areas Ethnic minorities – schools fail young black males Females – higher grades, but career inequalities

6 6 Functionalists - Durkheim Education promotes social solidarity, social system ED - French, early 20 th C Education: - promotes group commitment -learn rules, procedures -teaches special skills for complex, industrial society

7 7 Functionalists - Parsons 1950s, US sociologist Education socialises children Schools are: -Universalistic -Pro achievement -Meritocratic And enable role allocation Different rewards seen as fair Education promotes democracy, modernisation

8 8 Criticisms Schools dont transmit shared norms, solidarity? Power issues: Who gains? Dominant classes? Schools not meritocratic or pro-achievement? Need more critical focus on inequalities

9 9 Illich Hidden Curriculum Schools: - teach key values, promote social order BUT: promote passivity, conformity produce obedient consumers public lack influence over what is taught Pro deschooling, learning webs

10 10 Bowles & Gintis US Marxists Correspondence Principle (education and work are similar worlds) Hidden curriculum produces: -Obedient workers -Accept hierarchies -External rewards as normal -Fragmented subjects – world makes little sense

11 11 Bowles & Gintis Schools legitimise inequality Pupil results: Class/family more influential than IQ Criticisms? -Employers dont control schooling? -Formal curriculum? -Children not passive (Willis)? Potent critique of inequalities

12 12 Gender Girls long excluded from higher education Post-war – greater participation But hidden curriculum - gender-role expectations – e.g. boys in science Recent studies: girls out- perform boys But – differences remain - glass ceiling e.g. Unis and female pay!

13 13 Summary Consider structural aspects of education -Functionalists: benefits social system -Illich: many negative effects, notably passivity -Bowles/Gintis: sustains exploitative system -Gender: school and gender inequalities

14 14 SIGN UP FOR TUTORIALS Please go to this website: Tutorial attendance is compulsory End of this class – I need 7-8 class reps. Please volunteer and come to the front at end of lecture

15 15 Education - Inequalities Structuralist theories of Education: -Bernstein -Bourdieu Educational inequalities rooted in class divisions

16 16 Bernstein Class differences linked to language Two speech patterns/Codes: Elaborated - Restricted Middle-class - Working-class Codes linked to classes and educational success

17 17 Bernstein Elaborated codes – universalistic Meanings explicit Longer, complex sentences Context free Restricted codes – particularistic Meanings implicit Fewer words, simpler sentences Context bound – situational, know other speakers

18 18 Bernstein Middle classes: elaborated codes need in work e.g. sales person-centred relationships in family Working classes: restricted codes positional relationships in family

19 19 Bernstein Education: Emphasises elaborated codes for success Suits middle-class children Working-class kids learn elaborated codes, not as familiar for them They need to change how see world to succeed in school Overall – BB ties education to class/language

20 20 Bourdieu Critiqued reproduction of class divisions through education Key concept – Cultural Capital -varied forms e.g. educational certificates, knowledge of arts and world, cultural tastes, etc. -cultural resources dividing groups -can use for economic gain -helps success in work, social life

21 21 Bourdieu Dominant classes claim more cultural capital Lower classes have less experience, out of place Children of dominant classes enter school with CC, where CC is appreciated

22 22 Bourdieu Dominant classes set educational standards Schools emphasise symbolic (e.g. talking) not practical (making) – favours dominant As move up educationally - pupils from dominated classes eased out Dominant classes – their children claim better ability

23 23 Bourdieu Inequalities seem fair – education is open, free Lower-class children – failure is their fault Some succeed, promoting fairness illusion Recent times: Mass education: Lower-class dilemma: i)Gain devalued certificates OR ii)Stay outside and fail

24 24 Critical Views Bernstein/Bourdieu: - Crude division of classes? Bernstein exaggerates limited speech of working classes? Bourdieu ignores lower class advances? Offers no scope for change? BUT: overall – structuralist accounts explain continuing inequalities, strong fit re theory and evidence

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