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C81COG Cognitive Psychology REVISION LECTURE (2008-2009) Lecturers: Peter Chapman Peter Chapman Alastair Smith Alastair Smith Jonathan Stirk Richard Tunney.

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Presentation on theme: "C81COG Cognitive Psychology REVISION LECTURE (2008-2009) Lecturers: Peter Chapman Peter Chapman Alastair Smith Alastair Smith Jonathan Stirk Richard Tunney."— Presentation transcript:

1 C81COG Cognitive Psychology REVISION LECTURE ( ) Lecturers: Peter Chapman Peter Chapman Alastair Smith Alastair Smith Jonathan Stirk Richard Tunney Geoff Underwood

2 Structure of lectures Semester 1 Semester 1 Intro to cognition Intro to cognition Perception/Illusions Perception/Illusions Pattern recognition/vision Pattern recognition/vision Imagery Imagery Attention Attention

3 Structure of lectures Semester 2 Semester 2 Psychology of language Psychology of language Word recognition/reading Word recognition/reading Memory- sensory/categorical Memory- sensory/categorical Thinking/Problem solving Thinking/Problem solving Deduction/Reasoning Deduction/Reasoning

4 Breakdown of assessment 20 credit module 20 credit module Assessment by exam & coursework Assessment by exam & coursework Exam: 75% Exam: 75% Coursework (tutorial essay): 25% Coursework (tutorial essay): 25%

5 Structure of exam Number of questions: 120 Number of questions: questions per lecture 5-7 questions per lecture Type of questions: ALL Multiple choice Type of questions: ALL Multiple choice BRING A PENCIL AND ERASER! BRING A PENCIL AND ERASER! Length of exam: 2 hours Length of exam: 2 hours

6 What to do when you sit in your seat Read the instructions Read the instructions Fill in the details on the ANSWER SHEET Fill in the details on the ANSWER SHEET Fill in the candidate slip Fill in the candidate slip

7 What to do READ INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY!READ INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY! FILL IN REQUIRED INFORMATIONFILL IN REQUIRED INFORMATION REMEMBER TO USE THE GRID ON THE TOP RIGHT TO MARK OUT YOUR CANDIDATE NUMBER (WITH A PENCIL)REMEMBER TO USE THE GRID ON THE TOP RIGHT TO MARK OUT YOUR CANDIDATE NUMBER (WITH A PENCIL) FILL IN THE ANSWER GRID WITH A PENCIL MAKING ONE THICK PENCIL LINE ONLY PER QUESTIONFILL IN THE ANSWER GRID WITH A PENCIL MAKING ONE THICK PENCIL LINE ONLY PER QUESTION REMOVE ANY INCORRECT OR ADDITIONAL MARKS WITH AN ERASERREMOVE ANY INCORRECT OR ADDITIONAL MARKS WITH AN ERASER

8 What not to do!

9 Tips for answering MCQs Read the directions carefully Read the directions carefully The directions usually indicate that some alternatives may be partly correct or correct statements in themselves, but not when joined to the stem. The directions usually indicate that some alternatives may be partly correct or correct statements in themselves, but not when joined to the stem. You are required to answer 120 multiple choice questions in 2 hours or less. This means you may have less than a minute, on average, to spend on each question. Some questions, of course, will take you only a few seconds, while others will require more time for thought. You are required to answer 120 multiple choice questions in 2 hours or less. This means you may have less than a minute, on average, to spend on each question. Some questions, of course, will take you only a few seconds, while others will require more time for thought.

10 Tips for answering MCQs Plan to progress through the exam in three ways: Plan to progress through the exam in three ways: Read every question carefully but quickly, answering only those of which you are 100% certain. Put a "?" on those that need more thought. Read every question carefully but quickly, answering only those of which you are 100% certain. Put a "?" on those that need more thought. Then, examine/study the questions not yet answered. Answer those you are reasonably sure of without pondering too long on each. Erase the "?" Then, examine/study the questions not yet answered. Answer those you are reasonably sure of without pondering too long on each. Erase the "?" Finally, study read the remaining unanswered questions. If you cannot come to a decision by reasoning or if you run out of time, guess. Erase the "?". A guess is better than a blank. Finally, study read the remaining unanswered questions. If you cannot come to a decision by reasoning or if you run out of time, guess. Erase the "?". A guess is better than a blank.

11 Tips for answering MCQs Use the process of elimination procedure. Eliminate the obviously incorrect alternatives. Use the process of elimination procedure. Eliminate the obviously incorrect alternatives. Read all of the stem and every alternative Read all of the stem and every alternative Read the stem with each alternative to take advantage of the correct sound or flow that the correct answer often produces. Also, you can eliminate any alternatives that do not agree grammatically with the stem. Read the stem with each alternative to take advantage of the correct sound or flow that the correct answer often produces. Also, you can eliminate any alternatives that do not agree grammatically with the stem. Consider "all of the above" and "none of the above." Consider "all of the above" and "none of the above." Examine the "above" alternatives to see if all of them or none of them apply totally. If even one does not apply totally, do not consider "all of the above" or "none of the above" as the correct answer. Make sure that a statement applies to the question since it can be true, but not be relevant to the question at hand! Examine the "above" alternatives to see if all of them or none of them apply totally. If even one does not apply totally, do not consider "all of the above" or "none of the above" as the correct answer. Make sure that a statement applies to the question since it can be true, but not be relevant to the question at hand!

12 Tips for answering MCQs Note negatives Note negatives If a negative such as "none", "not", "never", or "neither" occurs in the stem, know that the correct alternative must be a fact or absolute and that the other alternatives could be true statements, but not the correct answer. If a negative such as "none", "not", "never", or "neither" occurs in the stem, know that the correct alternative must be a fact or absolute and that the other alternatives could be true statements, but not the correct answer. Note superlatives Note superlatives Words such as "every", "all", "none", "always", and "only" are superlatives that indicate the correct answer must be an undisputed fact. In the social sciences, absolutes are rare. Words such as "every", "all", "none", "always", and "only" are superlatives that indicate the correct answer must be an undisputed fact. In the social sciences, absolutes are rare. Note qualifying words Note qualifying words "Usually", "often", "generally", "may", and "seldom" are qualifiers that could indicate a true statement. "Usually", "often", "generally", "may", and "seldom" are qualifiers that could indicate a true statement.

13 Tips for answering MCQs Study Qualifications Study Qualifications Break the stem down into grammatical parts. Pull out the bare subject and verb (if it is in the stem), and then examine all the modifiers (qualifiers) to the subject and verb. This process ensures that you will examine every part of the stem. Break the stem down into grammatical parts. Pull out the bare subject and verb (if it is in the stem), and then examine all the modifiers (qualifiers) to the subject and verb. This process ensures that you will examine every part of the stem. Changing Answers Changing Answers Research has shown that changing answers on a multiple choice or true-false exam is neither good nor bad: if you have a good reason for changing your answer, change it. Research has shown that changing answers on a multiple choice or true-false exam is neither good nor bad: if you have a good reason for changing your answer, change it.

14 Example MCQ Questions Cognitive psychology assumes that: Cognitive psychology assumes that: a. information processing is unlimited a. information processing is unlimited b. perception is guided only by incoming data b. perception is guided only by incoming data c. perception is guided only by knowledge c. perception is guided only by knowledge d. none of the above d. none of the above

15 Example MCQ Questions The Müller-Lyer illusion can be explained in terms of: The Müller-Lyer illusion can be explained in terms of: a. misapplied size constancy a. misapplied size constancy b. interpreting the figure as showing lines in depth b. interpreting the figure as showing lines in depth c. integration of the lines into the objects at the ends c. integration of the lines into the objects at the ends d. all of the above d. all of the above

16 Example MCQ Questions In Shepard & Metzler's (1971) experiment: In Shepard & Metzler's (1971) experiment: a. rotation of images was much easier in 2-D than 3-D a. rotation of images was much easier in 2-D than 3-D b. time to answer was a linear function of the angular rotation required b. time to answer was a linear function of the angular rotation required c. the results did not accord with the participants' introspections c. the results did not accord with the participants' introspections d. people had to physically rotate complex block figures d. people had to physically rotate complex block figures

17 Example MCQ Questions The Stroop Task illustrates that: The Stroop Task illustrates that: a. people can name words printed in coloured ink a. people can name words printed in coloured ink b. words and colours are easily confused b. words and colours are easily confused c. some colours are so similar that we have to give them the same names c. some colours are so similar that we have to give them the same names d. printed words can unavoidably interfere with attended processes d. printed words can unavoidably interfere with attended processes

18 Example MCQ Questions In Broadbent's (1958) theory, preattentive analysis is accomplished by: In Broadbent's (1958) theory, preattentive analysis is accomplished by: a. the perceptual system a. the perceptual system b. the template-matching system b. the template-matching system c. the sensory system c. the sensory system d. none of these d. none of these

19 Example MCQ Questions Which of the following is true of Anne Treismans theory of selective attention: Which of the following is true of Anne Treismans theory of selective attention: a. unattended information is attenuated a. unattended information is attenuated b. unattended information is processed semantically b. unattended information is processed semantically c. attended information is filtered c. attended information is filtered d. both a and b above d. both a and b above

20 Example MCQ Questions Phrase Structure Grammar (PSG) allows us to: Phrase Structure Grammar (PSG) allows us to: a. produce both meaningful and meaningless sentences a. produce both meaningful and meaningless sentences b. produce only meaningful sentences b. produce only meaningful sentences c. map from the deep structure to the surface structure of a sentence c. map from the deep structure to the surface structure of a sentence d. produce grammatically incorrect sentences d. produce grammatically incorrect sentences

21 Example MCQ Questions The smallest unit of meaning in language is called: The smallest unit of meaning in language is called: a. a morpheme a. a morpheme b. a phoneme b. a phoneme c. a grapheme c. a grapheme d. a syllable d. a syllable

22 Example MCQ Questions Craik & Tulvings (1975) classic study showed that as depth of processing increases: Craik & Tulvings (1975) classic study showed that as depth of processing increases: a. latencies decrease a. latencies decrease b. latencies increase b. latencies increase c. recognition accuracy decreases c. recognition accuracy decreases d. recognition remains constant d. recognition remains constant

23 Example MCQ Questions Kleimans (1975) experiments showed that: Kleimans (1975) experiments showed that: a. graphemic decisions are not affected by articulatory suppression a. graphemic decisions are not affected by articulatory suppression b. phonemic decisions are not affected by articulatory suppression b. phonemic decisions are not affected by articulatory suppression c. semantic decisions are not affected by articulatory suppression c. semantic decisions are not affected by articulatory suppression d. none of the above d. none of the above

24 Example MCQ Questions In which of the following problems are peoples feelings of warmth good predictors of how close they are to success? In which of the following problems are peoples feelings of warmth good predictors of how close they are to success? a. the Tower of Hanoi task a. the Tower of Hanoi task b. the cheap necklace problem b. the cheap necklace problem c. the reversing triangle task c. the reversing triangle task d. the nine dots task d. the nine dots task

25 Example MCQ Questions If P then Q. Not-Q. Therefore not-P. is an example of: If P then Q. Not-Q. Therefore not-P. is an example of: a. modus ponens a. modus ponens b. modus tollens b. modus tollens c. affirmation of the consequent c. affirmation of the consequent d. denial of the antecedent d. denial of the antecedent

26 Example MCQ Questions If P then Q. Not-Q. Therefore not-P. is an example of: If P then Q. Not-Q. Therefore not-P. is an example of: a. modus ponens a. modus ponens b. modus tollens b. modus tollens c. affirmation of the consequent c. affirmation of the consequent d. denial of the antecedent d. denial of the antecedent Denial of the consequent Denial of the consequent If I am happy, then I smile. I am not smiling, therefore I am not happy. If I am happy, then I smile. I am not smiling, therefore I am not happy.

27 Example MCQ Questions Kahneman and Tversky attributed base rate neglect in the Taxi Cab problem to: Kahneman and Tversky attributed base rate neglect in the Taxi Cab problem to: a. hindsight bias a. hindsight bias b. representativeness heuristic b. representativeness heuristic c. divided attention c. divided attention d. prospect theory d. prospect theory

28 And Finally……

29 ANSWERS The correct answers for the example questions are in order below: The correct answers for the example questions are in order below: d d b d c d a a b d a b b d d b d c d a a b d a b b


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