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Restorative Justice In Schools: Necessary Roles of Cooperative Learning and Constructive Conflict David W. Johnson University of Minnesota ESRC Seminar,

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Presentation on theme: "Restorative Justice In Schools: Necessary Roles of Cooperative Learning and Constructive Conflict David W. Johnson University of Minnesota ESRC Seminar,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Restorative Justice In Schools: Necessary Roles of Cooperative Learning and Constructive Conflict David W. Johnson University of Minnesota ESRC Seminar, Restorative Approaches to Conflict in Schools Nottingham, England September 14, 2010 (c) Johnson & Johnson1

2 2 Cooperative Learning Center 60 Peik Hall University Of Minnesota Minneapolis, Minnesota Phone: (612) Fax: (612)

3 (c) Johnson & Johnson3 Schedule Introduction Nature of Restorative Justice Cooperative Context Integrative Negotiations and Peer Mediation Constructive Controversy Civic Values Conclusions Discussion

4 (c) Johnson & Johnson Forming Base Groups Ignore Your Friends Find People You Do Not Know Who Are Different From You: Different Regions Both Males And Females Various Ages Various Cultural And Ethnic Backgrounds 4

5 (c) Johnson & Johnson 5 Group Warm-Up Names Professional Role Favorite Place (Geographic, Specific) Name The Most Important Outcome Of Cooperative Learning (In Your Present Opinion)

6 Robin Hood It Is Appropriate That We Are Meeting To Discuss Restorative Justice At The Location Where Historically Restorative Justice Has Been Championed By A Local Hero The Power Of The Myth Reflects How Much People Want Restorative Justice In Their Lives (c) Johnson & Johnson6

7 Moral Community Restorative Justice Involves Joining Perpetrators And Victims In The Same Moral Community Community: Limited Number Of People In Same Locality Who Share Common Goals, Values, Culture Heart Of Community Is Positive Interdependence (Individuals Work Together To Achieve Common Goals And Maintain Values And Culture) Community Is Threatened By: Negative Interdependence (Individuals Work Against Each Other To Achieve Goals Only One Or A Few Can Attain) No Interdependence (Individuals Outcomes Are Unaffected By Actions Of Others) 7(c) Johnson & Johnson

8 Types Of Justice Distributive Justice: How Benefits Are Distributed (Equity, Equality, Need) Procedural Justice: Fairness of Procedures For Distributing Benefits Scope of Justice (Moral Inclusion): Who Justice Applies To Restorative Justice: Parties Affected By Harm Jointly Decide On Reparations (c) Johnson & Johnson8

9 Restorative Justice Post Destructive Conflict (Becomes An Issue After Harm Is Done Or Another Type Of Justice Is Violated) Bring Together All Parties Affected By Harm To Agree On What Happened And How Wrongs Can Be Righted Aspects: Reconciliation (Emotional Reattachment) Forgiveness (Victim Pardons Offender, Lets Go Of Desire For Revenge, Grudge, Resentment) (c) Johnson & Johnson9

10 Conditions For Restorative Justice Cooperative Context Constructive Conflict Resolution: Teaching Students To Be Peacemakers Problem-Solving Negotiations Peer Mediation Constructive Controversy Civic Values (c) Johnson & Johnson10

11 Whole School (Community) Approach All Students Are Taught The Norms, Values, And Procedures Needed For Restorative Justice To Work Emphasis Is On Prevention (c) Johnson & Johnson11

12 (c) Johnson & Johnson2 T 12 Context Of Restorative Justice Cooperative Competitive Accurate Communication Accurate Perceptions Trust Constructive Problem Solving Inaccurate Communication Misperceptions Distrust Destructive Going For The Win

13 (c) Johnson & Johnson2 T 13 Context Of Restorative Justice Cooperative Competitive Mutual Goals Self And Others Well-Being Trust & Liking Others Needs Legitimate Long-Term Time Perspective Own Goals Only Own Well-Being, Others Deprivation Distrust & Hostility Deny Legitimacy Of Others Needs Short-Term Time Perspective

14 (c) Johnson & Johnson14 Spatial-Reasoning Task Task: Identify How Many Rectangles Are In The Figure Cooperative Structure: One Answer From The Group, Everyone Has To Agree, Everyone Has To Be Able To Point Out Each Rectangle Criterion For Success: Each Member Can Identify All Rectangles Individual Accountability: One Member Will Be Selected At Random To Demonstrate Mastery Expected Behaviors: Everyone Suggests, Questions, Encourages Intergroup Cooperation: When Finished, Compare Answer With Another Group

15 (c) Johnson & Johnson15 How Many Rectangles In This Figure? How Did You Feel What Did You Notice

16 (c) Johnson & Johnson16 Group Processing Name Three Things Your Group Did Well In Working Together Name One Thing Your Group Could Do Even Better Next Time

17 (c) Johnson & Johnson17 Advice For Using Cooperative Learning Remember: Working Groups Are Small Arrange Group Members Knee-To-Knee But Facing You Go Personal As Well As Professional Emphasize Making Each Member A Stronger Individual Have Members Sign Groups Work Emphasize Positive Feedback Emphasize Group Celebrations Make Implementing Five Basic Elements A Disciplined Practice

18 (c) Johnson & Johnson18 Basic Premise Of SI Theory Type Of Interdependence Structured Among Goals Determines How Individuals Interact (Interaction Patterns) Determines Outcomes

19 (c) Johnson & Johnson19 Competition One Person Obtains His/Her Goal If And Only If Others Fail To Obtain Theirs; Negative Correlation Among Goal Attainments If I Swim, You Sink; If You Swim, I Sink Teachers Role: Individual Goal (Do Better Than Others) Norm-Referenced (Comparative) Evaluation Winners Are Rewarded

20 (c) Johnson & Johnson20 Individualistic One Person Obtains His/Her Goal Does Not Influence Whether Others Obtain Theirs; No Correlation Among Goal Attainments We Are All In This Alone Teachers Role: Individual Goals Criteria-Referenced Evaluation Rewarded If Product Reaches Criteria

21 (c) Johnson & Johnson21 Cooperative When One Person Obtains His/Her Goal, All Others Obtain Theirs; Positive Correlation Among Goal Attainments We Sink Or Swim Together Teachers Role: Group Goal (Learn And Ensure All Other Group Members Learn) Criteria-Referenced Evaluation Rewarded On Basis Of All Group Members Work

22 (c) Johnson & Johnson22 Social Interdependence Theory Social Interdependence Exists When The Outcomes Of Individuals Are Affected By Each Others Actions. Two Types Of Interdependence: Positive Negative Psychological Processes: Substitutability Cathexis Inducibility Interaction Patterns: Promotive Contrient Or Oppositional Morton Deutsch

23 Validating Research Over 1,200 Research Studies With Enough Data Reported To Derive Effect Sizes (c) Johnson & Johnson23

24 High Generalizability 12 Historical Decades All Age Levels Variety Of Organizational Settings Diverse Populations Nearly 30 Countries (c) Johnson & Johnson24

25 (c) Johnson & JohnsonT A : 25

26 (c) Johnson & Johnson26 Impact Of Social Interdependence On Dependent Variables: Mean Effect Sizes Note: Coop = Cooperation, Comp = Competition; Ind = Individualistic Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. (1989). Cooperation And Competition: Theory And Research. Edina, MN: Interaction Book Company Coop/CompCoop/IndComp/Ind Achievement Interpersonal Attraction Social Support Self-Esteem

27 What Makes Cooperation Work! Positive Interdependence Individual Accountability Promotive Interaction Appropriate Use Of Social Skills Group Processing (c) Johnson & Johnson27

28 (c) Johnson & Johnson28 Wide Scale Use Of Cooperative Learning In Mid-1960s When We First Began To Train Teachers, Cooperative Learning Was Basically Unknown and Unused The Zeitgeist Of The Times Was Competition and Individualistic Learning

29 Cooperation And Conflict The Greater The Cooperation, The More Frequent And Intense The Conflicts (c) Johnson & Johnson29

30 Two Types Of Conflict In Cooperative Situations Integrative (Problem-Solving) Negotiations & Mediation: Conflicts Of Interests Constructive Controversy: Decision Making And Problem Solving (c) Johnson & Johnson30

31 (c) Johnson & Johnson1 T 31 Teaching Students To Be Peacemakers Program What Is Conflict Five Strategies For Managing Conflicts Learning To Negotiate Learning To Mediate Implementing Program Follow-Up Lessons 3 Lessons 8 Lessons 6 Lessons Daily Several Each Week

32 (c) Johnson & Johnson32 Increase Frequency Of Conflicts: Increase Achievement & Long-Term Retention Increase Higher-Level Cognitive & Moral Reasoning Increase Healthy Cognitive & Social Development Focus Attention On Problems To Be Solved & Increases Energy To Do So Clarify Own & Others Identity, Values Clarify How You Need To Change Release Feelings That If Repressed Make You Psychologically Sick Strengthen Relationships Increase Confidence We Can Resolve Disagreements Keep Relationship Clear Of Resentments Are Fun

33 Five Strategies Withdrawal Forcing Compromising Smoothing Problem Solving (c) Johnson & Johnson33

34 (c) Johnson & Johnson34 Integrative Negotiating Steps Person 1 Person 2 I Want I Feel My Reasons Are My Understanding Of You Is Three Plans Are Lets Choose Plan B. Shake. I Want I Feel My Reasons Are My Understanding Of You Is Three Plans Are Lets Choose Plan B. Shake.

35 (c) Johnson & Johnson1 T 35 Which Books To Take Tasks: Choose The Two Books That Are: Most Important To Save Most Helpful In Starting New Civilization Write Down Reasons Why Plan How To Convince Others To Agree Procedure: Individual Decision And Rationale Form Pair, Negotiate Which Three To Take

36 Mediation End Hostilities And Cool Down Disputants Ensure All Parties Are Committed To Mediation Process Facilitate Problem-Solving (Integrative) Negotiations Formalize Agreement 36(c) Johnson & Johnson

37 Implementation Preschool Through Graduate School Adult Married Couples In Therapy Various Other Settings (c) Johnson & Johnson37

38 (c) Johnson & Johnson38 Peacemaker Meta-Analysis: Mean Effect Sizes Dependent Variable Academic Achievement Academic Retention Learned CR Procedures Procedures Retention Strategy Constructiveness Constructiveness Retention Strategy Two-Concerns Two-Concerns Retention Integrative Negotiations Positive Attitude Negative Attitude Quality Of Agreement Mean s.d. n

39 (c) Johnson & Johnson39 Research On Peacemaking Began In 1960s Current Version Formalized in Late 1970s Research In Schools: 16 Studies Findings: Students Learned And Retained Negotiation And Mediation Procedures Students Used Procedures Skillfully In Simulated And Actual Conflicts Student Use Of Procedures Transferred To Non-Classroom And Non-School Settings Attitudes Toward Conflict Became More Positive When Placed In General Conflict Situations, Used Problem-Solving Rather Than Win-Lose Negotiation Procedure When Integrated Into Academic Units, Increased Student Academic Achievement And Retention Discipline Problems Decreased Life-Long Developmental Advantage

40 (c) Johnson & Johnson1 T 40 Recognition Of Teaching Students To Be Peacemakers Program Model Program SAMHSA Substance Abuse And Mental Health Services Administration U.S. Department Of Health And Human Services

41 Constructive Controversy To Establish And Maintain Restorative Justice Procedures And Agreements, Decisions About Difficult Issues Must Be Continually Made The Decision Making Process Must Recognize Differences In Perspectives And Frames Of Reference (c) Johnson & Johnson41

42 (c) Johnson & Johnson42 Controversy When One Persons Ideas, Information, Conclusions, Theories, Or Opinions Are Incompatible With Those Of Another -- And The Two Seek To Reach An Agreement.

43 (c) Johnson & Johnson43 Heart Of Democracy Difference Of Opinion Leads To Inquiry, And Inquiry Leads To Truth Thomas Jefferson

44 (c) Johnson & Johnson44 Benefits Of Controversy Generates Energy Focuses And Retains Attention Motivation To Learn Higher Achievement, Retention Higher Quality And More Creative Decisions Strengthens Relationships

45 (c) Johnson & Johnson45 Controversy Procedure Research, Conceptualize, Organize Position Present, Advocate Best Case For Position Engage In Open Discussion: Continue To Advocate Best Case Refute Other Positions (Give It Trial-By-Fire) Rebut Attacks On Own Position (Clarify Facts & Logic) Reverse Perspectives, View Issue From All Sides Drop All Advocacy, Synthesize, Make Best Reasoned Judgment

46 (c) Johnson & Johnson46 Controversy Procedure Step Phrase Prepare Present Open Discussion Perspective Reversal Synthesis Our Best Case Is... The Answer Is... Because... I Disagree Because... You Should Agree With Me Because... Your Position Is...Because... Our Best Reasoned Judgment Is...

47 (c) Johnson & Johnson47 Was Peter Pan Right Or Wrong? Peter Pan Believed That Staying Young In Never-Never Land Was The Ideal Way To Live. Was He Right Or Wrong? Is It Better To: Stay Young And Never Grow Up? Grow Up And Leave Childhood Behind? Be Ready To Present The Best Case Possible For One Of These Positions.

48 (c) Johnson & Johnson48 Process Of Controversy

49 (c) Johnson & Johnson49 Have You Learned Lessons Only Of Those Who Admired You, And Were Tender With You, And Stood Aside For You? Have You Not Learned Great Lessons From Those Who Braced Themselves Against You, And Disputed The Passage With You? Walt Whitman, 1860

50 (c) Johnson & Johnson50 Meta-Analysis Of Academic Controversy Studies: Mean Effect Sizes Dependent Variables Controversy / Concurrence Seeking Controversy / Debate Controversy / Individualistic Efforts Achievement Cog Reasoning Perspective Taking Motivation Attitudes Task Liking For Others Social Support Self-Esteem

51 (c) Johnson & Johnson51 Practical Application: Education Preschool Through Graduate School, Adult Education All Subject Areas Traditional, Non-Traditional, After-School, Non-School Educational Programs Teacher Preparation, Inservice Programs Textbooks, Practitioner Publications, Journals Curriculum And Instructional Materials Teaching Students How To Be Citizens In A Democracy

52 Practical Applications: Decision Making Business: Dean Tjosvold Engineering: Karl Smith Random: Airlines (Cot Pit Crews) Hospitals Military (c) Johnson & Johnson52

53 Democracy Project Constructive Controversy Is Being Used To Teach Elementary And Secondary Students How To Be Citizens In A Democracy In Such Countries As: Azerbaijan Czech Republic Lithuania Armenia United States (c) Johnson & Johnson53

54 (c) Johnson & Johnson54 He That Wrestles With Us Strengthens Our Nerves, And Sharpens Our Skill. Our Antagonist Is Our Helper Edmund Burke

55 Civic Values: Habits Of The Heart Alexis de Tocqueville Called Civic ValuesThe Habits Of The Heart. Why? Civic Values Include: Taking Responsibility For The Common Good Trusting Others To Do The Same Being Honest Having Self-Discipline Reciprocating Good Deeds Perfecting Cooperative Skills Perfecting Conflict Resolution Skills 55(c) Johnson & Johnson

56 Civic Values Work For Mutual Benefit, Common Good Commitment To Contribute Ones Fair Share Of The Work Equality Of All Members Trusting, Caring Relationships Respect For Efforts Of Others And For Others As Persons View Situations From All Perspectives Unconditional Worth Of Self, Diverse Others Compassion For Others In Need Appreciation Of Diversity 56(c) Johnson & Johnson

57 Cooperative Values Commitment To Own And Others Success And Well-Being; Contributing To Common Good Commitment To Do Ones Fair Share Of The Work Commitment To Facilitate, Promote, Encourage The Success Of Others Celebration Of Others Success As Well As Ones Own 57(c) Johnson & Johnson

58 Integrative Negotiation Values Seek To Maximize Joint Outcomes See Issues From All Perspectives Decisions Are Made On Basis Of Valid Information And Logic Open-Minded Search For Integrative Solutions 58(c) Johnson & Johnson

59 Controversy Values Truth (Best Possible Action To Take Under The Current Circumstances) Diverse Viewpoints And Intellectual Opposition Are Important Resources Every Side Receives A Fair Hearing Critical Analysis Of Every Side Synthesis, Integration Of Best Reasoning Conclusions Are Tentative, Based On Current Information And Logic 59(c) Johnson & Johnson

60 60 Resilience In The Face Of Adversity Cooperative (As Opposed To Oppositional Or Disruptive) Problem Solving Approach To Conflict Resolution Proactive & Involved (As Opposed To Withdrawn) Once Learned, Cooperative And Conflict Competencies Are Available Forever And Cannot Be Taken Away

61 Life-Long Advantage Knowing How To Cooperate And Resolve Conflicts With Skill And Grace Gives Students A Developmental Advantage That Tends To Increase Their: Academic Success Career Success (Employability, Promotability) Quality Of Life (Friends, Marriage, Parenthood) Happiness, Psychological Well-Being (c) Johnson & Johnson 61

62 Conclusions Effective Restorative Justice: Procedures Outcomes Depend On At Least Four Conditions: Cooperative Context Integrative (Problem Solving) Negotiations And Peer Mediation Constructive Controversy In Decision Making Civic Values (c) Johnson & Johnson62

63 Final Conclusion If Robin Hood Were Here Today Listening To The Presentations And Discussions, He Would Be Pleased We Are Not Quite Robbing From The Rich And Giving To The Poor, But We Are Finding Ways To Restore Justice (c) Johnson & Johnson63

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