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Radiation Protection Service University of Glasgow The Internal Radiation Hazard Janice Brock University RPO The Internal Radiation Hazard Ionising Radiation.

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Presentation on theme: "Radiation Protection Service University of Glasgow The Internal Radiation Hazard Janice Brock University RPO The Internal Radiation Hazard Ionising Radiation."— Presentation transcript:

1 Radiation Protection Service University of Glasgow The Internal Radiation Hazard Janice Brock University RPO The Internal Radiation Hazard Ionising Radiation Regulations 1999 Dose Limits and Unsealed Isotopes

2 Radiation Protection Service University of Glasgow The Internal Radiation Hazard Janice Brock University RPO Brief History : Roentgen discovers X-rays Becquerel announces discovery of other rays Thompson deliberately overexposes finger Generally excepted that frequent/intensive use causes burns Rollins demonstrates that X-rays can kill guinea pigs

3 Radiation Protection Service University of Glasgow The Internal Radiation Hazard Janice Brock University RPO British Roentgen Society issues advice to X-ray users Mutscheller proposes permissible exposure limitof 1/100 of dose producing skin burn (equivalent to 2 mSv/day) Roentgen (R) adopted as the unit for measuring dose Formation of International X-ray and Radium Protection Committee

4 Radiation Protection Service University of Glasgow The Internal Radiation Hazard Janice Brock University RPO ACXRP recommend tolerance dose of 0.1 R/day ~250 mSv/yr Wollan appointed first health physicist by Manhattan Group Nobel Prize awarded to Muller for work on the genetic effects International Committee on Radiological Protection

5 Radiation Protection Service University of Glasgow The Internal Radiation Hazard Janice Brock University RPO Shoe-Fitting Fluoroscope (ca ) Uses for ionising radiation

6 Radiation Protection Service University of Glasgow The Internal Radiation Hazard Janice Brock University RPO

7 Radiation Protection Service University of Glasgow The Internal Radiation Hazard Janice Brock University RPO The Lifestone Cigarette Holder (ca. 1964)

8 Radiation Protection Service University of Glasgow The Internal Radiation Hazard Janice Brock University RPO Fuel Saving Device (ca.2005 )

9 Radiation Protection Service University of Glasgow The Internal Radiation Hazard Janice Brock University RPO Radon Health Mine (Present Day)

10 Radiation Protection Service University of Glasgow The Internal Radiation Hazard Janice Brock University RPO International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Radioactive Substances Act 1993 (RSA93). Ionising Radiation Regulations 1999 (IRR99). Current UK Legislation

11 Radiation Protection Service University of Glasgow The Internal Radiation Hazard Janice Brock University RPO ICRP - Independent registered UK charity 1. Justification 2. Optimisation (ALARP principle) 3. Dose limitations

12 Radiation Protection Service University of Glasgow The Internal Radiation Hazard Janice Brock University RPO Radioactive Substances Act 1993 : Registration :all sources accounted for Authorisation :radioactive waste minimization Accountability :cradle to grave Governing Body :SEPA Justification :next slide

13 Radiation Protection Service University of Glasgow The Internal Radiation Hazard Janice Brock University RPO Justification: Radioactive Substances Act 1993 is a legal requirement for applications to use ionising radiation. No practice involving the use of ionising radiation shall be allowed unless its introduction produces a net benefit – trivial uses not allowed.

14 Radiation Protection Service University of Glasgow The Internal Radiation Hazard Janice Brock University RPO When formulating a justification take into account the following: Appropriateness of the procedure Risk versus benefit Radiological assessment Safety considerations Possible environmental impact Dose limitations – set by UK government Optimisation – next slide

15 Radiation Protection Service University of Glasgow The Internal Radiation Hazard Janice Brock University RPO Optimisation: Radioactive Substances Act 1993 Suitable controls are in place to address all significant hazards Risks are kept as low as reasonably practicable (ALARP) Procedures to continually review risk controls Accurate record keeping

16 Radiation Protection Service University of Glasgow The Internal Radiation Hazard Janice Brock University RPO Ionising Radiation Regulations 1999 Health and safety – all radiation employers must fully comply Emphasis is on dose limitation – National limits Comprehensive Approved Code of Practice Dose Assessment Governing body – Health and Safety Executive (HSE)

17 Radiation Protection Service University of Glasgow The Internal Radiation Hazard Janice Brock University RPO Dose Limitation: IRR99 Radiation dose limits for each population group must not be exceeded. Dose assessments – do not include exposures received from medical treatments or natural sources. Dose records must be kept for each employee. Dose monitoring and record keeping provided by an Independent body – e.g. University uses Landaur.

18 Radiation Protection Service University of Glasgow The Internal Radiation Hazard Janice Brock University RPO ICRP 60 (1983) - Dose limit recommendations Incorporated into IRR 1999 Stochastic effects Radiation worker > 18 yrs - 20 mSv (effective) / yr.

19 Radiation Protection Service University of Glasgow The Internal Radiation Hazard Janice Brock University RPO Members of the Public Average annual dose of 1 mSv/yr averaging over 5 years Dose in any one year not exceeding 5 mSv. UK further restricts that contributions from discharges from nuclear installations must not exceed 0.5 mSv/yr

20 Radiation Protection Service University of Glasgow The Internal Radiation Hazard Janice Brock University RPO Deterministic effects : No need for separate organ dose limit if 20 mSv/yr adopted Skin, hands, forearms500mSv/yr Feet and ankles500 mSv/yr Lens of eye150 mSv/yr

21 Radiation Protection Service University of Glasgow The Internal Radiation Hazard Janice Brock University RPO Radiation Dose Limits & ICRP 60 Background Radiation : Gamma-from rock and soil, Glasgow ~ 0.3 mSv/yr Cosmic-high energy particles from space bombard atmosphere producing mu mesons and neutrons resulting in ~ 0.3 mSv/yr

22 Radiation Protection Service University of Glasgow The Internal Radiation Hazard Janice Brock University RPO 40K-naturally occurring isotopes of potassium, uranium, thorium and carbon ~ 0.2 mSv/yr Radon-gaseous decay product of uranium, can contribute an effective maximum annual dose of ~ 1.2 mSv Depending on where you live you could receive a background dose of up to 2 mSv/yr

23 Radiation Protection Service University of Glasgow The Internal Radiation Hazard Janice Brock University RPO Dose Assessment: Absorbed dose D T is measure of dissipated energy/unit mass Unit is the 1Gy1Gy = Dissipation of 1 Joule/kg Equivalent dose H T = D T x W R Measured in Seiverts 1 Gy = 1 Sv for beta and 20 Sv for alpha. Effective dose E = H T x W T, Measured in Seiverts

24 Radiation Protection Service University of Glasgow The Internal Radiation Hazard Janice Brock University RPO The Effects on Health : Deterministic effect : An effect which is known to occur above a threshold limit, severity increases with increasing dose. Stochastic effect : Effect is not certain to occur but there is a probability of occurrence.

25 Radiation Protection Service University of Glasgow The Internal Radiation Hazard Janice Brock University RPO Annual Limit on Intake (ALI) Intake (of radioisotope) which would give an effective dose equal to the annual dose of a radiation worker when we calculate the accumulated dose over a period of 50 years. Dose Assessment: IRR99

26 Radiation Protection Service University of Glasgow The Internal Radiation Hazard Janice Brock University RPO The value of ALI for a particular isotope depends on : The route of entry The chemical properties of the isotope The particle size (especially in the case of inhalation) The types and energies of the radiation and the physical and biological half- life Concentration in particular organs, etc E.g. 125I is given as 2.7 MBq (inhalation) and 1.3 MBq (ingestion)

27 Radiation Protection Service University of Glasgow The Internal Radiation Hazard Janice Brock University RPO Dose Assessment: Committed effective dose per unit intake, expressed in Sv/Bq More information given than for ALI e.g. - age of exposed individuals - status (public or occupational) - gut transfer factors - three default lung absorptions E.g. 125I - 1.5E-8 Sv/Bq (ingestion) 5.3E-9 Sv/Bq (inhalation)

28 Radiation Protection Service University of Glasgow The Internal Radiation Hazard Janice Brock University RPO Dose Assessment: By measurement Whole body monitor Liquid scintillation Gamma spectroscopy Portable scintillation counter Personal dosimeter

29 Radiation Protection Service University of Glasgow The Internal Radiation Hazard Janice Brock University RPO e.g. Thyroid monitoring for 125I intakes 125I accumulates in the Thyroid gland A type 5.42 probe held at Adams apple ~ 10 cps for 1 kBq intake 1 kBq intake = 1.35 mSv equivalent dose = 70 Sv effective

30 Radiation Protection Service University of Glasgow The Internal Radiation Hazard Janice Brock University RPO Working with Unsealed Isotopes – The Dangers Internal contamination with radioisotopes can happen through various routes: 1.Inhalation 2. Ingestion 3. Injection 4. Absorption

31 Radiation Protection Service University of Glasgow The Internal Radiation Hazard Janice Brock University RPO Dangers in the Use of Unsealed Radioactive Materials Most hazardous activities: Opening a vial in close proximity - high dose rate Dispensing from stock solutions – vapour, droplets, aerosols

32 Radiation Protection Service University of Glasgow The Internal Radiation Hazard Janice Brock University RPO Use personal protection : E.g. lab coat, safety glasses/face shield, disposable gloves, disposable apron, appropriate radiation shield. Additionally : Personal dosimeter, consider finger badge for some isotopes e.g. P32, contamination monitor.

33 Radiation Protection Service University of Glasgow The Internal Radiation Hazard Janice Brock University RPO Precautions in the Use of Unsealed Radioactive Materials Setting up the experiment : Use the least radiotoxic isotope Use the minimum activity required Know the physical and chemical properties of the isotope Use dummy run experiments without radioisotopes

34 Radiation Protection Service University of Glasgow The Internal Radiation Hazard Janice Brock University RPO Working Procedures : Laboratory coats must be worn at all times. Eating, drinking, smoking or applying cosmetics are prohibited. No mouth pipetting. Work must not be carried out by a person with an undressed cut or abrasion below the wrist. Gloves must be worn. Monitor for contamination radiation levels must be carried out routinely. Gloves and clothing must be monitored after handling radioactive materials.

35 Radiation Protection Service University of Glasgow The Internal Radiation Hazard Janice Brock University RPO Working Procedures Continued : Hands must be washed before leaving the laboratory after handling radioactive materials. Work should be carried out in lined trays. All apparatus used for radioactive materials must be labelled with radioactive warning tape. Radioactive waste must be placed in an appropriate container and its radioactivity recorded, along with the relevant date. Containers for radioactive materials must not be directly held in the hand if this would cause significant doses to fingers. Particular attention must be paid to this possibility. Radionuclides emitting penetrating radiations must be adequately shielded. In the laboratory, records must be kept of all stocks and radioactive waste Contamination must be cleared up without delay.

36 Radiation Protection Service University of Glasgow The Internal Radiation Hazard Janice Brock University RPO Radioactive Waste Three routes for disposal : 1. Liquid waste, via disposal sink. 2. Solid waste to authorised contractor, via RPS. 3. Gaseous disposal, via authorised fume cupboard.

37 Radiation Protection Service University of Glasgow The Internal Radiation Hazard Janice Brock University RPO Radioactive Liquid Waste: Aqueous waste should be diluted before disposal Use only marked disposal sinks Run water through sink to disperse waste (avoid splashes) Log all activity discharged – very important SEPA will ask you to justify your disposal figures Do not exceed your monthly disposal limits expensive! No organic solvents

38 Radiation Protection Service University of Glasgow The Internal Radiation Hazard Janice Brock University RPO Radioactive Solid Waste : Segregate the waste into 3H/14C; 32P; others. Dispose to marked bins only. Do not put non-radioactive waste into these bins. Do not put biohazard waste into these bins. Do not put radioactive waste into normal waste bins. Contents of bins must be labelled. Units must be in Bq, kBq, MBq etc – legal document.

39 Radiation Protection Service University of Glasgow The Internal Radiation Hazard Janice Brock University RPO Radioactive Waste Label

40 Radiation Protection Service University of Glasgow The Internal Radiation Hazard Janice Brock University RPO Precautions in the Use of Unsealed Radioactive Materials No pipetting by mouth. No eating, drinking, smoking or applying cosmetics. Use disposable handkerchiefs. Wear labcoat (buttoned up). Wear radiation dosimeter (chest height). Wear gloves. Wear plastic apron for high activity solutions Work in fume cupboard

41 Radiation Protection Service University of Glasgow The Internal Radiation Hazard Janice Brock University RPO Contamination Monitoring

42 Radiation Protection Service University of Glasgow The Internal Radiation Hazard Janice Brock University RPO Decontamination Areas Decontaminate areas with Decon and work out to in Safe level is about 3 Bq/cm2 Fixed contamination must not exceed 3.5 Svhr-1

43 Radiation Protection Service University of Glasgow The Internal Radiation Hazard Janice Brock University RPO Skin Contamination : Wash (not scrub) skin with soap and running water Do not use Decon on skin Do not break the skin Report all accidents and spillage's immediately to your dept. RPS. If they are not available contact the University Radiation Protection Service (4471/5878) for advice

44 Radiation Protection Service University of Glasgow The Internal Radiation Hazard Janice Brock University RPO Summary : The internal hazard is the principal hazard encountered in the use of unsealed radioactive materials. There is NO shielding from an internal intake. There is NO distance protection from an internal intake. Irradiation occurs 24 hours/day. Emissions will be dissipated in the cells of the body. Certain isotopes will concentrate in particular organs.

45 Radiation Protection Service University of Glasgow The Internal Radiation Hazard Janice Brock University RPO Optimisation: Suitable controls are in place to address all significant hazards Risks are kept as low as reasonably practicable (ALARP) Procedures to continually review risk controls Dose Limitation: Radiation dose limits for each population group must not be exceeded. When calculating dose limits – do not include exposures received from medical treatments or natural sources. Dose records must be kept for each employee. Dose monitoring and record keeping provided by an Independent body – e.g. University uses Landaur.


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