26 Personal Monitoring Why monitor non-classified workers? Not likely to receive > 3/10 relevant dose limit(e.g. effective dose > 6 mSv / yr)How do you prove this?Easiest way is to provide ongoing monitoring
27 Thermoluminescent dosemeters Measurement range 0. 1 mSv to 5 SvOnly issued if risk assessment concludes they are required
28 Electronic Dosimeters Give an instant reading of dose.Measurement range mSv to 1 Sv
29 Other Monitoring Extremity Eye - tlds Internal rings - tlds or electronicEye - tldsInternale.g Iodine uptakedoserate measurementsswabssamples
30 ContaminationSpilt or misapplied radionuclides adheres to or lies on surface of skin, clothing, equipment or furniture.Spills give rise to:external radiationactivity entering body viaingestioninhalationabsorptionleading to internal radiation
31 Instrumentation for detecting ionising radiation
32 Gas based detectors –Geiger- Muller counter,GM tube, orGeiger counterScintillation detectors -Solid stateLiquid
47 When dealing with spillage of radioactive material Do not to delay medical care unnecessarilyProtect yourselvesAttend to contaminated persons firstPrevent the spillage becoming worsePrevent additional people from becoming contaminatedClear up and decontaminate the area so it can be put into use
48 Urgent medical careIf anyone requires urgent medical care, either by immediate first aid or transfer to A&E DO THIS FIRST .Inform A&E that the casualty is contaminated. Take any obvious steps to reduce or eliminate the hazard to the casualty, to yourselves or anyone attending the casualty.Contact Radiation Protection Service
49 Protect yourselves Pause, take stock and gather information Don protective clothingIf in doubt and there are no casualties involved, GET HELP – but bear in mind that you should always try and ensure the incident is not made worse by your actions
50 Contaminated personsWashing with soap and water. Always try to localise the contaminated area and just wash that bit. A whole body shower is seldom the best approach.Remove contaminated clothingWashing out any open wound, eyes, mouth, nose etc.If contamination persists contact radiation protection.
51 Prevent spillage becoming worse Use temporary barriers or close the door.Prevent people walking through the contaminated or potentially contaminated.Use an appropriate contamination monitor to assess the extend of the spill.Check personnel for contamination before they leave the vicinity.
52 Clear up and decontaminate Purpose is to transfer the radioactive material from the floor or person to the waste store.Use absorbent material i.e. paper towels to soak up the material.Dispose in appropriate bin.Estimate activity.For stubborn areas of contamination use a normal detergent or decon.When clearing up a spill always work from the outside in.Use your contamination monitor!!!
53 Contamination monitoring Know which is the correct monitor to use.Take care not to contaminate the monitor.Get down close to the contamination.Monitor area systematically.Be thorough .
54 Other points to note Some one should take charge of the situation. Work as a team not as teams of individuals.Have a plan