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Radiation Protection.

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Presentation on theme: "Radiation Protection."— Presentation transcript:

1 Radiation Protection

2 Internal/External Hazard
Internal hazard arises through ingestion or inhalation of a radiation material – not a problem in radiology.

3 Internal/External Hazard
External hazards Arise from exposure to external sources. X-ray sets, emissions from sources etc

4 Reducing Radiation Dose from external hazard

5 Reducing Radiation Dose from external hazard - TIME
The longer you are exposed to a field of ionising radiation the higher the dose you will receive. Double to time double the dose

6 Reducing Radiation Dose from external hazard - DISTANCE
The nearer you stand to an source of radiation the higher the dose – so stand away! Double the distance quarter the dose

7 Reducing Radiation Dose from external hazard - Shielding
Lead shielding can be used to attenuate X-rays Room shielding Screens Protective clothing

8 Shielding Need to know type of radiation Plan to use Local Shielding
Nuclear Imaging uses g radiation Radiochemical Labs use b radiation Plan to use Local Shielding May also need Wall Shielding

9 Local Shielding 1 Vial Shielding
b emitters - Perspex Vial shields & Storage g emitters - Tungsten Vial shields & lead-lined box for Storage

10 Vial Shielding b emitters

11 Vial Shielding g emitters

12 Local Shielding 2 Nuclear Medicine Syringes
g emitters - Tungsten syringe shields lead-lined box for Storage

13 Syringe Shields g emitters

14 Local Shielding 3 L- Bench Shielding
g emitters - Lead- lined shields & Lead-glass b emitters - Perspex L shields

15 Lead L- Bench g emitters

16 PET Dispensing Station

17 Perspex L Bench b emitters

18 Local Shielding 4 Radioactive Waste Shielding
g emitters - Sharps bins & Lead-lined containers b emitters - Perspex waste containers, often lined with polythene bags

19 Sharps bins & Lead-lined containers g emitters

20 Perspex waste containers b emitters

21 Wall Shielding Often unnecessary for labs
However, same principles employed for X-ray rooms should be applied to assess requirements for Radiochemical Laboratories

22 Room shielding Lead glass viewing window Lead lined plaster board

23 Reducing Radiation Dose from Internal hazard
PERSONNAL PROTECTION CLOTHING (Training, technique, experience)

24 Personal Protective Equipment

25 Radiation protection in X-ray

26 Personal Monitoring Why monitor non-classified workers?
Not likely to receive > 3/10 relevant dose limit (e.g. effective dose > 6 mSv / yr) How do you prove this? Easiest way is to provide ongoing monitoring

27 Thermoluminescent dosemeters
Measurement range 0. 1 mSv to 5 Sv Only issued if risk assessment concludes they are required

28 Electronic Dosimeters
Give an instant reading of dose. Measurement range mSv to 1 Sv

29 Other Monitoring Extremity Eye - tlds Internal
rings - tlds or electronic Eye - tlds Internal e.g Iodine uptake doserate measurements swabs samples

30 Contamination Spilt or misapplied radionuclides adheres to or lies on surface of skin, clothing, equipment or furniture. Spills give rise to: external radiation activity entering body via ingestion inhalation absorption leading to internal radiation

31 Instrumentation for detecting ionising radiation

32 Gas based detectors – Geiger- Muller counter, GM tube, or Geiger counter Scintillation detectors - Solid state Liquid

33 Gas filled detectors

34 Scintillation detectors

35 Scintillation detector

36 Liquid scintillation - coincidence detection

37 Liquid scintillation vial
Contaminant in intimate contact with scintillation medium Swab Pulse of light produced with radiation absorbed Liquid scintillant


39 Mini 900 series EP15 probe GM gas counter

40 Mini 900 series E type probe GM gas counter

41 Mini 900 series 44A probe Solid state scintillation counter

42 Using the right detector
Beta Tritium (Hydrogen-3) Carbon-14 Sulphur-35 Phosphorus-32 Phosphorus-33 18.6 keV 157 keV 167 keV 1.7 MeV 2.5 keV Liquid scint GM tube EP15 GM tube EP15 / Scint 44A Gamma Iodine-125 Cobalt-60 Caesium-137 36 keV 1.17 MeV & 1.33 MeV 662 Scint 44A / GM tube EP15 Scint 44A

43 Identifying the detector type
Look at the label on probe Scintillation probe heavier Scintillation detector higher background rate, switch it on. When in doubt ASK YOUR RPS

44 Wipe testing Use a swab and wipe surface using tweezers
Present to appropriate contamination monitor in low background area For low energy Beta use liquid scintillation counting

45 Wipe testing low level contamination and low energy Beta. Contamination lifted using absorbent material and counted in a gamma counter or liquid scintillation counter

46 Radiation spill /incident
Don’t Panic !!!

47 When dealing with spillage of radioactive material
Do not to delay medical care unnecessarily Protect yourselves Attend to contaminated persons first Prevent the spillage becoming worse Prevent additional people from becoming contaminated Clear up and decontaminate the area so it can be put into use

48 Urgent medical care If anyone requires urgent medical care, either by immediate first aid or transfer to A&E DO THIS FIRST . Inform A&E that the casualty is contaminated. Take any obvious steps to reduce or eliminate the hazard to the casualty, to yourselves or anyone attending the casualty. Contact Radiation Protection Service

49 Protect yourselves Pause, take stock and gather information
Don protective clothing If in doubt and there are no casualties involved, GET HELP – but bear in mind that you should always try and ensure the incident is not made worse by your actions

50 Contaminated persons Washing with soap and water. Always try to localise the contaminated area and just wash that bit. A whole body shower is seldom the best approach. Remove contaminated clothing Washing out any open wound, eyes, mouth, nose etc. If contamination persists contact radiation protection.

51 Prevent spillage becoming worse
Use temporary barriers or close the door. Prevent people walking through the contaminated or potentially contaminated. Use an appropriate contamination monitor to assess the extend of the spill. Check personnel for contamination before they leave the vicinity.

52 Clear up and decontaminate
Purpose is to transfer the radioactive material from the floor or person to the waste store. Use absorbent material i.e. paper towels to soak up the material. Dispose in appropriate bin. Estimate activity. For stubborn areas of contamination use a normal detergent or decon. When clearing up a spill always work from the outside in. Use your contamination monitor!!!

53 Contamination monitoring
Know which is the correct monitor to use. Take care not to contaminate the monitor. Get down close to the contamination. Monitor area systematically. Be thorough .

54 Other points to note Some one should take charge of the situation.
Work as a team not as teams of individuals. Have a plan

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