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Layering in Networked computing OSI Model TCP/IP Model Protocols at each layer.

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Presentation on theme: "Layering in Networked computing OSI Model TCP/IP Model Protocols at each layer."— Presentation transcript:

1 Layering in Networked computing OSI Model TCP/IP Model Protocols at each layer

2 Learning outcomes Understand the need of layering in Networked computing Understand the need of layering in Networked computing Understand the OSI model and the tcp/ip model Understand the OSI model and the tcp/ip model – Understand the function protocols and their role at each layer. TCP protocol TCP protocol UDP protocol UDP protocol Understand the role of header in communication between layers Understand the role of header in communication between layers Understand how data sent from one host arrive to the target host. Understand how data sent from one host arrive to the target host.

3 What is layering in Networked computing? – Breaks down communication into smaller, simpler parts.

4 Why a layered model? – Easier to teach communication process. – Speeds development, changes in one layer does not affect how the other levels works. – Standardization across manufactures. – Allows different hardware and software to work together. – Reduces complexity

5 The OSI Reference Model

6 OSI Open Systems Interconnection". OSI model was first introduced in 1984 by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). – Outlines WHAT needs to be done to send data from one computer to another. – Not HOW it should be done. – Protocols stacks handle how data is prepared for transmittal (to be transmitted) In the OSI model, The specification needed – are contained in 7 different layers that interact with each other. The OSI Model

7 What is THE MODEL? Commonly referred to as the OSI reference model. The OSI model – is a theoretical blueprint that helps us understand how data gets from one users computer to another. – It is also a model that helps develop standards so that all of our hardware and software talks nicely to each other. – It aids standardization of networking technologies by providing an organized structure for hardware and software developers to follow, to insure there products are compatible with current and future technologies.

8 7 Layer OSI Model Why use a reference model? – Serves as an outline of rules for how protocols can be used to allow communication between computers. – Each layer has its own function and provides support to other layers. Other reference models are in use. – Most well known is the TCP/IP reference model. – We will compare OSI and TCP/IP models As computing requirements increased, the network modeling had to evolve to meet ever increasing demands of larger networks and multiple venders. Problems and technology advances also added to the demands for changes in network modeling.

9 Evolution of the 7-Layers Single Layer Model - First Communication Between Computer Devices – Dedicated copper wire or radio link – Hardware & software inextricably intertwined – Single specification for all aspects of communication DEVICE A DEVICE B Hardware & Software Hardware & Software 1

10 Evolution of the 7-Layers (1) Two Layer Model – Problem: Applications were being developed to run over ever-increasing number of media/signaling systems. – Solution: Separate application aspects from technical (signaling and routing) aspects – Application Layer: Concerned with user interface, file access and file transfer Application Technical Standards Application Technical Standards 1

11 Evolution of the 7-Layers (3) Four Layer Model - Network connectivity inherently requires travel over intermediate devices (nodes) Technical Standards Level divided into Network, Data-link and Physical Layers Network Physical Data-Link Application Network Physical Data-Link Application 1

12 Evolution of the 7-Layers (3) cont. Physical Layer –Describes physical aspects of network: cards, wires, etc –Specifies interconnect topologies and devices Network Layer –Defines a standard method for operating between nodes –Address scheme is defined (IP) –Accounts for varying topologies Data-Link –Works with Network Layer to translate logical addresses (IP) into hardware addresses (MAC) for transmission –Defines a single link protocol for transfer between two nodes

13 Evolution of the 7-Layers (4) Transport Application Network Physical Data-Link Transport Application Network Physical Data-Link 1 Five Layer Model – Increase Quality of Service (QOS) Variable levels of data integrity in network Additional data exchanges to ensure connectivity over worst conditions Became the Transport Layer

14 Evolution of the 7-Layers (5) Six Layer Model - Dialogue Control and Dialogue Separation –Means of synchronizing transfer of data packets –Allows for checkpointing to see if data arrives (at nodes and end stations) –Became Session Layer Transport Network Physical Data-Link Session Application Transport Network Physical Data-Link Session Application 1

15 Evolution of the 7-Layers (6) The Seven Layer OSI Model - Addition of Management and Security –Standardizing notation or syntax for application messages (abstract syntax) –Set of encoding rules (transfer syntax) –Became the Presentation Layer Presentation Transport Network Physical Data-Link Session Application Presentation Transport Network Physical Data-Link Session Application 1

16 What Each Layer Does 2

17 Gives end-user applications access to network resources Where is it on my computer? – Workstation or Server Service in MS Windows 3

18 Presentation Layer 3

19 Session Layer Allows applications to maintain an ongoing session Where is it on my computer? – Workstation and Server Service (MS) – Windows Client for NetWare (NetWare) 3

20 Transport Layer Provides reliable data delivery Its the TCP in TCP/IP Receives info from upper layers and segments it into packets Can provide error detection and correction 3

21 Figure 2.9 Transport layer The transport layer is responsible for the delivery of a message from one process to another.

22 Network Layer Provides network-wide addressing and a mechanism to move packets between networks (routing) Responsibilities: – Network addressing – Routing Example: – IP from TCP/IP 3

23 Network layer The network layer is responsible for the delivery of individual packets from the source host to the destination host.

24 Network Addresses Network-wide addresses Used to transfer data across subnets Used by routers for packet forwarding Example: – IP Address Where is it on my computer? – TCP/IP Software

25 Data Link Layer Places data and retrieves it from the physical layer and provides error detection capabilities 3

26 Data link layer The data link layer is responsible for moving frames from one hop (node) to the next.

27 Sub-layers of the Data Link Layer MAC (Media Access Control) – Gives data to the NIC – Controls access to the media through: CSMA/CD Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Detection Token passing LLC (Logical Link Layer) – Manages the data link interface (or Service Access Points (SAPs)) – Can detect some transmission errors using a Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC). If the packet is bad the LLC will request the sender to resend that particular packet.

28 Physical Layer Determines the specs for all physical components – Cabling – Interconnect methods (topology / devices) – Data encoding (bits to waves) – Electrical properties Examples: – Ethernet (IEEE 802.3) – Token Ring (IEEE 802.5) – Wireless (IEEE 802.11b) 3

29 Physical layer The physical layer is responsible for the movement of individual bits from one hop (node) to the next.

30 Physical Layer (contd) What are the Physical Layer components on my computer? NIC – Network Interface Card – Has a unique 12 character Hexadecimal number permanently burned into it at the manufacturer. – The number is the MAC Address/Physical address of a computer Cabling – Twister Pair – Fiber Optic – Coax Cable

31 How Does It All Work Together Each layer contains a Protocol Data Unit (PDU) – PDUs are used for peer-to-peer contact between corresponding layers. – Data is handled by the top three layers, then Segmented by the Transport layer. – The Network layer places it into packets and the Data Link frames the packets for transmission. – Physical layer converts it to bits and sends it out over the media. – The receiving computer reverses the process using the information contained in the PDU. 2

32 Figure 2.2 OSI layers

33 Data Encapsulation In TCP/IP At each layer in the TCP/IP protocol stack Outgoing data is packaged and identified for delivery to the layer underneath PDU – Packet Data Unit – the envelop information attached to a packet at a particular TCP/IP protocol e.g. header and trailer Header PDUs own particular opening component Identifies the protocol in use, the sender and intended recipient Trailer (or packet trailer) – Provides data integrity checks for the payload

34 Encapsulation example: E-mail

35 Encapsulation

36 Figure 2.3 An exchange using the OSI model

37 Figure 2.14 Summary of layers

38 The Postal Analogy A- Write a 20 page letter to a foreign country. P- Translate the letter so the receiver can read it. S- Insure the intended recipient can receive letter. T- Separate and number pages. Like registered mail, tracks delivery and requests another package if one is lost or damaged in the mail. N- Postal Center sorting letters by zip code to route them closer to destination. D- Local Post Office determining which vehicles to deliver letters. P- Physical Trucks, Planes, Rail, autos, etc which carry letter between stations. Presentation Transport Network Physical Data-Link Session Application How would the OSI compare to the regular Post Office

39 Remembering the 7 Layers 7 - A pplication A ll 6 - P resentation P eople 5 - S ession S eem 4 - T ransport T o 3 - N etwork N eed 2 - D ata Link D ata 1 - P hysical P rocessing

40 TCP/IP model development The late-60s The Defense Advance Research Projects Agency (DARPA) originally developed Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) to interconnect various defense department computer networks. The Internet, an International Wide Area Network, uses TCP/IP to connect networks across the world.

41 4 layers of the TCP/IP model Layer 4: Application Layer 3: Transport Layer 2: Internet Layer 1: Network access It is important to note that some of the layers in the TCP/IP model have the same name as layers in the OSI model. Do not confuse the layers of the two models.

42 The network access layer Concerned with all of the issues that an IP packet requires to actually make the physical link. All the details in the OSI physical and data link layers. – Electrical, mechanical, procedural and functional specifications. – Data rate, Distances, Physical connector. – Frames, physical addressing. – Synchronization, flow control, error control.

43 The internet layer Send source packets from any network on the internetwork and have them arrive at the destination independent of the path and networks they took to get there. – Packets, Logical addressing. – Internet Protocol (IP). – Route, routing table, routing protocol.

44 The transport layer The transport layer deals with the quality-of- service issues of reliability, flow control, and error correction. – Segments, data stream, datagram. – Connection oriented and connectionless. – Transmission control protocol (TCP). – User datagram protocol (UDP). – End-to-end flow control. – Error detection and recovery.

45 TCP/IP Reference Model (cont) 3. Transport layer (layer 3) – Allows end-to-end communication – Connection establishment, error control, flow control – Two main protocols at this level Transmission control protocol (TCP), – Connection oriented Connection established before sending data Reliable user datagram protocol (UDP) – Connectionless Sending data without establishing connection Fast but unreliable

46 The application layer Handles high-level protocols, issues of representation, encoding, and dialog control. The TCP/IP combines all application-related issues into one layer, and assures this data is properly packaged for the next layer. – FTP, HTTP, SMNP, DNS... – Format of data, data structure, encode … – Dialog control, session management …

47 TCP/IP protocol stack

48 TCP/IP Reference Model Application Transport Internet Network Access (Host-to-network) Layer HTTPTELNETFTPSMTPSNMP Protocols TCPUDP IPICMP ETHERNETPACKET RADIO

49 Protocols at the application layer HTTP: – browser and web server communicatin FTP : – file transfer protocol TELNET: – remote login protocol POP3: Retrieve email – POP3 is designed to delete mail on the server as soon as the user has downloaded it IMAP (Internet Message Access Protocol ) – Retrieve emails, – retaining e-mail on the server and for organizing it in folders on the serve

50 Protocols at the transport layer Transmission control protocol (TCP), – Connection oriented Connection established before sending data Reliable user datagram protocol (UDP) – Connectionless Sending data without establishing connection Fast but unreliable

51 Protocol at the network layer IP – Path selection, – routing and addressing ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol ) – sends error messages relying on IP a requested service is not available a host or router could not be reached

52 Protocols at the link layer Ethernet – Uses CSMA/CD Token Ring

53 Data Formats Application data data TCP header data TCP header data TCP header data TCP header IP header data TCP header IP header Ethernet header Ethernet trailer application layer transport layer network layer data link layer message segment packet frame

54 Packet Encapsulation (TCP/IP) The data is sent down the protocol stack Each layer adds to the data by prepending headers 22Bytes20Bytes 4Bytes 64 to 1500 Bytes

55 Comparing TCP/IP with OSI OSI ModelTCP/IP HierarchyProtocols 7 th Application Layer 6 th Presentation Layer 5 th Session Layer 4 th Transport Layer 3 rd Network Layer 2 nd Link Layer 1 st Physical Layer Application Layer Transport Layer Network Layer Link Layer Link Layer : includes device driver and network interface card Network Layer : handles the movement of packets, i.e. Routing Transport Layer : provides a reliable flow of data between two hosts Application Layer : handles the details of the particular application

56 How the OSI and TCP/IP Models Relate in a Networking Environment

57 Internet applications TCP/IP takes care of the hard problems – Location of the destination host – Making sure the data is received in the correct order and error free Coding Internet applications – Turns out to be straightforward. The key concept of Internet programming is – The client-server model

58 Client-Server model Client and server processes operate on machines which are able to communicate through a network: – The Server waits for requests from client – When a request is received – The server lookup for the requested data – And send a response the client Sockets and ports – A socket is and end-point of way communication link between two programs – A port number bound to a socket specifies the protocol need the be used at the receiving end Example of servers – File servers – Web servers Example of client applications – Browsers – Email clients

59 What is a socket? An interface between application and network. – Create a socket Socket(Protocolfamily, type-of-communicatio, specific- protocol); – The application creates a socket – The socket type dictates the style of communication reliable vs. best effort connection-oriented vs. connectionless

60 Ports Port 0 Port 1 Port 65535 r Each host has 65,536 ports r 20,21: FTP r 23: Telnet 80: HTTP r A socket provides an interface to send data to/from the network through a port

61 Protocols For a great graphic of protocol stacks in relationship to the OSI model, visit For more information on the OSI model, including an animated graphic and various protocol information, visit

62 Reading 1, Charles C. Botsford, 2001. 2, Cisco Academy Connection Editors, 2002. 3 4 center/tc/html/TC0102.html, William L. Whipple & Sharla Riead, 1997. center/tc/html/TC0102.html 5, Lexicon Computing, Dallas TX, 2002

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