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Layering in Networked computing

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Presentation on theme: "Layering in Networked computing"— Presentation transcript:

1 Layering in Networked computing
OSI Model TCP/IP Model Protocols at each layer

2 Learning outcomes Understand the need of layering in Networked computing Understand the OSI model and the tcp/ip model Understand the function protocols and their role at each layer. TCP protocol UDP protocol Understand the role of header in communication between layers Understand how data sent from one host arrive to the target host.

3 What is layering in Networked computing?
Breaks down communication into smaller, simpler parts.

4 Why a layered model? Easier to teach communication process.
Speeds development, changes in one layer does not affect how the other levels works. Standardization across manufactures. Allows different hardware and software to work together. Reduces complexity

5 The OSI Reference Model

6 The OSI Model OSI “ Open Systems Interconnection".
OSI model was first introduced in 1984 by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). Outlines WHAT needs to be done to send data from one computer to another. Not HOW it should be done. Protocols stacks handle how data is prepared for transmittal (to be transmitted) In the OSI model, The specification needed are contained in 7 different layers that interact with each other.

7 What is “THE MODEL?” Commonly referred to as the OSI reference model.
The OSI model is a theoretical blueprint that helps us understand how data gets from one user’s computer to another. It is also a model that helps develop standards so that all of our hardware and software talks nicely to each other. It aids standardization of networking technologies by providing an organized structure for hardware and software developers to follow, to insure there products are compatible with current and future technologies.

8 7 Layer OSI Model Why use a reference model?
Serves as an outline of rules for how protocols can be used to allow communication between computers. Each layer has its own function and provides support to other layers. Other reference models are in use. Most well known is the TCP/IP reference model. We will compare OSI and TCP/IP models As computing requirements increased, the network modeling had to evolve to meet ever increasing demands of larger networks and multiple venders. Problems and technology advances also added to the demands for changes in network modeling.

9 Evolution of the 7-Layers
Single Layer Model - First Communication Between Computer Devices Dedicated copper wire or radio link Hardware & software inextricably intertwined Single specification for all aspects of communication Hardware & Software 1 DEVICE A DEVICE B

10 Evolution of the 7-Layers (1)
Application Technical Standards Two Layer Model Problem: Applications were being developed to run over ever-increasing number of media/signaling systems. Solution: Separate application aspects from technical (signaling and routing) aspects Application Layer: Concerned with user interface, file access and file transfer 1

11 Evolution of the 7-Layers (3)
Network Physical Data-Link Application Four Layer Model - Network connectivity inherently requires travel over intermediate devices (nodes) Technical Standards Level divided into Network, Data-link and Physical Layers 1

12 Evolution of the 7-Layers (3) cont.
Physical Layer Describes physical aspects of network: cards, wires, etc Specifies interconnect topologies and devices Network Layer Defines a standard method for operating between nodes Address scheme is defined (IP) Accounts for varying topologies Data-Link Works with Network Layer to translate logical addresses (IP) into hardware addresses (MAC) for transmission Defines a single link protocol for transfer between two nodes

13 Evolution of the 7-Layers (4)
Transport Application Network Physical Data-Link Five Layer Model – Increase Quality of Service (QOS) Variable levels of data integrity in network Additional data exchanges to ensure connectivity over worst conditions Became the Transport Layer 1

14 Evolution of the 7-Layers (5)
Transport Network Physical Data-Link Session Application Six Layer Model - Dialogue Control and Dialogue Separation Means of synchronizing transfer of data packets Allows for checkpointing to see if data arrives (at nodes and end stations) Became Session Layer 1

15 Evolution of the 7-Layers (6)
Presentation Transport Network Physical Data-Link Session Application The Seven Layer OSI Model - Addition of Management and Security Standardizing notation or syntax for application messages (abstract syntax) Set of encoding rules (transfer syntax) Became the Presentation Layer 1

16 What Each Layer Does 2

17 3 Gives end-user applications access to network resources
Where is it on my computer? Workstation or Server Service in MS Windows 3

18 Presentation Layer 3

19 Session Layer 3 Allows applications to maintain an ongoing session
Where is it on my computer? Workstation and Server Service (MS) Windows Client for NetWare (NetWare) 3

20 Transport Layer 3 Provides reliable data delivery
It’s the TCP in TCP/IP Receives info from upper layers and segments it into packets Can provide error detection and correction 3

21 Figure 2.9 Transport layer
The transport layer is responsible for the delivery of a message from one process to another.

22 Network Layer Provides network-wide addressing and a mechanism to move packets between networks (routing) Responsibilities: Network addressing Routing Example: IP from TCP/IP 3

23 Network layer The network layer is responsible for the delivery of individual packets from the source host to the destination host.

24 Network Addresses Network-wide addresses
Used to transfer data across subnets Used by routers for packet forwarding Example: IP Address Where is it on my computer? TCP/IP Software

25 Data Link Layer Places data and retrieves it from the physical layer and provides error detection capabilities 3

26 Data link layer The data link layer is responsible for moving frames from one hop (node) to the next.

27 Sub-layers of the Data Link Layer
MAC (Media Access Control) Gives data to the NIC Controls access to the media through: CSMA/CD Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Detection Token passing LLC (Logical Link Layer) Manages the data link interface (or Service Access Points (SAPs)) Can detect some transmission errors using a Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC). If the packet is bad the LLC will request the sender to resend that particular packet.

28 Physical Layer Determines the specs for all physical components
Cabling Interconnect methods (topology / devices) Data encoding (bits to waves) Electrical properties Examples: Ethernet (IEEE 802.3) Token Ring (IEEE 802.5) Wireless (IEEE b) 3

29 Physical layer The physical layer is responsible for the movement of individual bits from one hop (node) to the next.

30 Physical Layer (cont’d)
What are the Physical Layer components on my computer? NIC Network Interface Card Has a unique 12 character Hexadecimal number permanently burned into it at the manufacturer. The number is the MAC Address/Physical address of a computer Cabling Twister Pair Fiber Optic Coax Cable

31 How Does It All Work Together
Each layer contains a Protocol Data Unit (PDU) PDU’s are used for peer-to-peer contact between corresponding layers. Data is handled by the top three layers, then Segmented by the Transport layer. The Network layer places it into packets and the Data Link frames the packets for transmission. Physical layer converts it to bits and sends it out over the media. The receiving computer reverses the process using the information contained in the PDU. 2

32 Figure OSI layers

33 Data Encapsulation In TCP/IP
At each layer in the TCP/IP protocol stack Outgoing data is packaged and identified for delivery to the layer underneath PDU – Packet Data Unit – the “envelop” information attached to a packet at a particular TCP/IP protocol e.g. header and trailer Header PDU’s own particular opening component Identifies the protocol in use, the sender and intended recipient Trailer (or packet trailer) Provides data integrity checks for the payload

34 Encapsulation example: E-mail

35 Encapsulation

36 Figure 2.3 An exchange using the OSI model

37 Figure 2.14 Summary of layers

38 The Postal Analogy How would the OSI compare to the regular Post Office Presentation Transport Network Physical Data-Link Session Application A- Write a 20 page letter to a foreign country. P- Translate the letter so the receiver can read it. S- Insure the intended recipient can receive letter. T- Separate and number pages. Like registered mail, tracks delivery and requests another package if one is “lost” or “damaged” in the mail. N- Postal Center sorting letters by zip code to route them closer to destination. D- Local Post Office determining which vehicles to deliver letters. P- Physical Trucks, Planes, Rail, autos, etc which carry letter between stations.

39 Remembering the 7 Layers
7 - Application All 6 - Presentation People 5 - Session Seem 4 - Transport To 3 - Network Need 2 - Data Link Data 1 - Physical Processing

40 TCP/IP model development
The late-60s The Defense Advance Research Projects Agency (DARPA) originally developed Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) to interconnect various defense department computer networks. The Internet, an International Wide Area Network, uses TCP/IP to connect networks across the world.

41 4 layers of the TCP/IP model
Layer 4: Application Layer 3: Transport Layer 2: Internet Layer 1: Network access It is important to note that some of the layers in the TCP/IP model have the same name as layers in the OSI model. Do not confuse the layers of the two models.

42 The network access layer
Concerned with all of the issues that an IP packet requires to actually make the physical link. All the details in the OSI physical and data link layers. Electrical, mechanical, procedural and functional specifications. Data rate, Distances, Physical connector. Frames, physical addressing. Synchronization, flow control, error control.

43 The internet layer Send source packets from any network on the internetwork and have them arrive at the destination independent of the path and networks they took to get there. Packets, Logical addressing. Internet Protocol (IP). Route , routing table, routing protocol.

44 The transport layer The transport layer deals with the quality-of-service issues of reliability, flow control, and error correction. Segments, data stream, datagram. Connection oriented and connectionless. Transmission control protocol (TCP). User datagram protocol (UDP). End-to-end flow control. Error detection and recovery.

45 TCP/IP Reference Model (cont)
3. Transport layer (layer 3) Allows end-to-end communication Connection establishment, error control, flow control Two main protocols at this level Transmission control protocol (TCP), Connection oriented Connection established before sending data Reliable user datagram protocol (UDP) Connectionless Sending data without establishing connection Fast but unreliable

46 The application layer Handles high-level protocols, issues of representation, encoding, and dialog control.  The TCP/IP combines all application-related issues into one layer, and assures this data is properly packaged for the next layer. FTP, HTTP, SMNP, DNS ... Format of data, data structure, encode … Dialog control, session management …

47 TCP/IP protocol stack

48 TCP/IP Reference Model
Layer Protocols Application HTTP TELNET FTP SMTP SNMP Transport TCP UDP Internet IP ICMP Network Access (Host-to-network) ETHERNET PACKET RADIO

49 Protocols at the application layer
HTTP: browser and web server communicatin FTP : file transfer protocol TELNET: remote login protocol POP3: Retrieve POP3 is designed to delete mail on the server as soon as the user has downloaded it IMAP (Internet Message Access Protocol ) Retrieve s, retaining on the server and for organizing it in folders on the serve

50 Protocols at the transport layer
Transmission control protocol (TCP), Connection oriented Connection established before sending data Reliable user datagram protocol (UDP) Connectionless Sending data without establishing connection Fast but unreliable

51 Protocol at the network layer
IP Path selection , routing and addressing ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol ) sends error messages relying on IP a requested service is not available a host or router could not be reached

52 Protocols at the link layer
Ethernet Uses CSMA/CD Token Ring

53 Data Formats Application data data data data data data message
layer transport layer TCP header data TCP header data TCP header data segment network layer IP header TCP header data packet data link layer Ethernet header IP header TCP header data Ethernet trailer frame

54 Packet Encapsulation (TCP/IP)
The data is sent down the protocol stack Each layer adds to the data by prepending headers 22Bytes 20Bytes 20Bytes 4Bytes 64 to 1500 Bytes

55 Comparing TCP/IP with OSI
OSI Model TCP/IP Hierarchy Protocols 7th Application Layer 6th Presentation Layer 5th Session Layer 4th Transport Layer 3rd Network Layer 2nd Link Layer 1st Physical Layer Link Layer : includes device driver and network interface card Network Layer : handles the movement of packets, i.e. Routing Transport Layer : provides a reliable flow of data between two hosts Application Layer : handles the details of the particular application

56 How the OSI and TCP/IP Models Relate in a Networking Environment

57 Internet applications
TCP/IP takes care of the hard problems Location of the destination host Making sure the data is received in the correct order and error free Coding Internet applications Turns out to be straightforward. The key concept of Internet programming is The client-server model

58 Client-Server model Client and server processes operate on machines which are able to communicate through a network: The Server waits for requests from client When a request is received The server lookup for the requested data And send a response the client Sockets and ports A socket is and end-point of way communication link between two programs A port number bound to a socket specifies the protocol need the be used at the receiving end Example of servers File servers Web servers Example of client applications Browsers clients

59 What is a socket? An interface between application and network.
Create a socket Socket(Protocolfamily, type-of-communicatio, specific- protocol); The application creates a socket The socket type dictates the style of communication reliable vs. best effort connection-oriented vs. connectionless

60 Ports Each host has 65,536 ports
20,21: FTP 23: Telnet 80: HTTP A socket provides an interface to send data to/from the network through a port

61 Protocols For a great graphic of protocol stacks in relationship to the OSI model, visit For more information on the OSI model, including an animated graphic and various protocol information, visit

62 Reading , Charles C. Botsford, 2001. https://cisconetacad.net, Cisco Academy Connection Editors, 2002. William L. Whipple & Sharla Riead, 1997. Lexicon Computing, Dallas TX, 2002


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