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Introduction to TCP/IP Chapter 2.  The OSI Model Layers Table provides an overview of each OSI model layer ’ s primary functions. Primary Functions of.

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction to TCP/IP Chapter 2.  The OSI Model Layers Table provides an overview of each OSI model layer ’ s primary functions. Primary Functions of."— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction to TCP/IP Chapter 2

2  The OSI Model Layers Table provides an overview of each OSI model layer ’ s primary functions. Primary Functions of the OSI Model Layers TCP/IP Structure and Addressing - OSI Model Review OSI Model Layer Layer Function Unit of Information Address type ApplicationUser FunctionalityProgram PresentationCharacter representation Compression Security Character and words Session Establishing, conducting, and ending sessions Transport Transmitting messages from sending computer process to receiving computer process MessageProcess to process between applications

3 Primary Functions of the OSI Model Layers TCP/IP Structure and Addressing - OSI Model Review OSI Model Layer Layer Function Unit of Information Address type NetworkTransmitting individual packets across a network Packet Data Link Transmitting bits in the form of signals across physical media Physical Transmitting frames containing a packet across a link en route to final destination Packet address identifying receiver’s network and host location Frame NIC (next node in network) Bit

4 OSI Reference Model Review Allows users to transfer files, send mail, etc. Only layer that users can communicate with directly Key features are ease of use and functionality Standardized data encoding and decoding Data compression Data encryption and decryption Manages user sessions Reports upper-layer errors Supports Remote Procedure Call activities Connection management (e.g., TCP) Error and flow control Connectionless, unreliable (e.g., UDP) Internetwork packet routing Minimizes subnet congestion Resolves differences between subnets Network access control - MAC address Packet framing Error and flow control Application 7 6 Presentation 5 Session 4 Transport 3 Network 2 Data Link 1 Physical Moves bits across a physical medium Interface between network medium and network devices Defines electrical and mechanical characteristics of LAN Provides Services Moves Data Connects processes

5  The Physical Layer only transmits bits to, and receives bits from, the physical medium, and does not “ see ” the bits as organized into meaningful patterns, such as an address.  The Physical Layer operates depending on the chosen network topology. The Physical Layer TCP/IP Structure and Addressing - OSI Model Review

6  A physical address is also referred to as a: –Hardware address –Adapter address –Network interface card (NIC) address –Medium Access Control (MAC) address  A physical address is required for network devices to ultimately deliver information to a given network node. Physical Addresses TCP/IP Structure and Addressing - OSI Model Review

7  We can categorize physical addresses, for the purposes of networking, into two general types: –A LAN address is commonly found in an Ethernet or Token Ring LAN environment. –WAN addresses in High-Level Data Link Control (HDLC) or frame relay network protocol addressing –Divided into two distinct parts –MAC –The MAC address of the node – interfaces with lower layers –LLC –Tags and identifies protocols - interfaces with upper layers The Data Link Layer TCP/IP Structure and Addressing - OSI Model Review

8  A logical address is generally implemented as a software entity rather than a hardware entity.  There are two primary types of logical addresses, as follows: –Network addresses, processed at the Network Layer –Port or process addresses, processed at the Transport Layer Logical Addresses TCP/IP Structure and Addressing - OSI Model Review

9  Because layer protocols designate both a host and a network, they allow us to build hierarchical networks.  The Three-Layer Network Hierarchy Diagram illustrates this concept. The Network Layer TCP/IP Structure and Addressing - OSI Model Review

10 The Network Layer TCP/IP Structure and Addressing - OSI Model Review Three-Layer Network Hierarchy

11  The Well-Known Port Numbers Table lists some of the more commonly used TCP and User Datagram Protocol (UDP) addresses. The Transport Layer TCP/IP Structure and Addressing - OSI Model Review DecimalProtocol-Description TCP-FTP Data TCP-FTP TCP-TELNET TCP-SMTP TCP/UDP-DNS UDP-BOOTP/DHCP UDP-TFTP UDP-SNMP

12  The Transport Layer is responsible not only for application addressing, but also for providing reliable communications over the best effort Layer 3 protocols.  The Transport Layer provides: –Flow control –Windowing –Data sequencing –Recovery The Transport Layer TCP/IP Structure and Addressing - OSI Model Review

13  The remaining OSI model layers work with the data itself. These layers leave the end-to-end data transport issues to the lower four layers: –The Session Layer –The Presentation Layer –The Application Layer Layers 5 through 7 TCP/IP Structure and Addressing - OSI Model Review

14  The Session Layer: –establishes, manages, and terminates sessions between applications. –provides its services to the Presentation Layer. –synchronizes dialog between Presentation Layer entities and manages their data exchange. The Session Layer TCP/IP Structure and Addressing - OSI Model Review

15  The Presentation Layer: –ensures that information sent by the Application Layer of one system is formatted in a manner in which the destination system ’ s Application Layer can read it. –can translate between multiple data representation formats, if necessary. The Presentation Layer TCP/IP Structure and Addressing - OSI Model Review

16  The Application Layer: –is the layer closest to the user. –provides user application services to application processes outside the OSI model ’ s scope and does not support the other layers. –identifies and establishes the intended communication partners availability, synchronizes cooperating applications, and establishes agreed procedures for application error recovery and data integrity control. –determines whether sufficient resources exist for the intended communications. The Application Layer TCP/IP Structure and Addressing - OSI Model Review

17 TCP/IP Structure and Addressing - Internet Protocol Suite  Lesson 2.3 – The TCP/IP protocol suite –TCP/IP suite pre-dates the OSI model –The TCP/IP model is the defacto model in use on the internet This lesson covers important aspects and protocols of a TCP/IP system. KEY POINT Each TCP/IP architecture layer has a specific purpose.

18 TCP/IP Structure and Addressing - Internet Protocol Suite  The TCP/IP Protocols Diagram shows a detailed picture of the TCP/IP layers. Overview of the TCP/IP Protocol Suite TCP/IP Protocols

19 TCP/IP Structure and Addressing - Internet Protocol Suite  The TCP/IP model layers function as follows: –Network Interface Layer –Internetwork Layer –Transport Layer –Application Layer Overview of the TCP/IP Protocol Suite

20 TCP/IP Structure and Addressing - Internet Protocol Suite  The Network Interface Layer protocols define rules that determine how a host accesses a LAN.  These low-level protocols define how a host connects to the network. Network Interface Layer Protocols

21 TCP/IP Structure and Addressing - Internet Protocol Suite  The Internetwork Layer protocols define the basic unit of transfer across a network and provide support for a global addressing scheme and routing.  IP, in its current version 4, provides the following functions: –A global addressing structure –Service type requests –Packet fragmentation –Packet reassembly Internetwork Layer Protocols

22 TCP/IP Structure and Addressing - Internet Protocol Suite  Other protocols at the Internetwork Layer include: –Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)/ Reverse ARP (RARP) –Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) –Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) Internetwork Layer Protocols

23 TCP/IP Structure and Addressing - Internet Protocol Suite  The Transport Layer ’ s primary function is to provide communication from one application program to another.  TCP/IP provides applications two different levels of service: –TCP –UDP Transport Layer Protocols

24 TCP/IP Structure and Addressing - Internet Protocol Suite  An application passes data to the Transport Layer protocols, which sequence the data into messages, or byte streams, for transport across the network.  The TCP/IP protocol suite includes the following Application Layer protocols: –Telnet –File Transfer Protocol (FTP) –Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) –Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) Application Layer Protocols

25 TCP/IP Structure and Addressing - Internet Protocol Suite –DNS –Post Office Protocol 3 (POP3) –Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) –Network News Transfer Protocol (NNTP) –UNIX-to-UNIX Copy Program (UUCP) protocol Application Layer Protocols

26 Physical Logical Port 80, 443, 23, etc TCP/IP address types

27  Multiplexing relies on the use of a concept called a socket. A socket consists of three things: –An IP address –A transport protocol –A port number Multiplexing Using TCP Port Numbers

28 Overview of TCP/IP Applications - Port Numbers  Jessie receives 3 packets:  A UDP-based ad application  A TCP-based wire- transfer application  A TCP web server application …Jessie needs to know which application to give the data to, but all three packets are from the same Ethernet and IP address. You might think that Jessie could look at whether the packet contains a UDP or a TCP header, but, as you see in the figure, two applications (wire transfer and web) both are using TCP.

29 OSI Reference Model Review


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