Presentation on theme: "Translanguaging as pedagogy? Adrian Blackledge University of Birmingham ESRC Seminar Series: Complementary Schools: Research,"— Presentation transcript:
Translanguaging as pedagogy? Adrian Blackledge University of Birmingham ESRC Seminar Series: Complementary Schools: Research, Policy and Practice Goldsmiths and Kings College London Final Conference on Complementary Schooling Saturday December 4th 2010
Project Details Four interlinking case studies – Gujarati schools in Leicester, – Turkish schools in London, – Cantonese and Mandarin schools in Manchester – Bengali schools in Birmingham Complementary Schools – Community-run – Voluntary – Weekends and after school – Serving specific linguistic, religious and cultural groups through community language classes
Research aims To explore the social, cultural and linguistic significance of complementary schools both within their communities and in wider society To investigate the range of linguistic practices used in the different contexts in the complementary schools To investigate how the linguistic practices of students and teachers in complementary schools are used to negotiate young peoples multilingual and multicultural identities.
Design Ethnographically informed observation in schools Team field notes: 133 sets of fieldnotes representing 399 hours of fieldwork Digital audio recording of pupils and teachers: 192 hours of audio-recorded interactional data Digital video recording of pupils and teachers: 16 hours of video-recorded interactional data Interviews with 66 key stakeholders Border crossings Documentary evidence
Superdiversity Many parts of the world are now characterised by superdiversity, distinguished by a dynamic interplay of variables among multiple-origin, transnationally connected migrants (Vertovec 2006, 2009) New forms of multilingualism emerge that defy dominant understandings of multilingualism as the ordered deployment of different languages
Language separation Bilingual educators have usually insisted on the separation of the two languages, one of which is English and the other, the childs vernacular. By strictly separating the languages, the teacher avoids, it is argued, cross contamination, thus making it easier for the child to acquire a new linguistic system as he/she internalizes a given lesson.... it was felt that the inappropriateness of the concurrent use was so self-evident that no research had to be conducted to prove this fact. (Jacobson and Faltis, 1990:4)
Bilingualism as double monolingualism Parallel monolingualism (Heller, 1999) Bilingualism with diglossia (Baker, 2003; Fishman, 1967) Bilingualism through monolingualism (Swain, 1983:4) Two solitudes (Cummins, 2005) Two monolinguals in one body (Gravelle, 1996:11).
Attitudes to codeswitching Feeling embarrassed about codeswitching and attributing it to careless language habits (Shin 2005) Codeswitching is often lambasted as bad practice, blamed on teachers lack of English-language competence, or put to one side and/or swept under the carpet (Martin, 2005:88)
Separate bilingualism T ű rçe Konuş – Bangla-e maato – (Gong Chong man) / (Shuo Putonghua/ Shuo Huayu) Gujaratima
Everyday linguistic practices Rumana: [singing along to music] rock your body, rock your body, rock your body, rock your body, tumhare bina chaenna aaye rock your body (home audio-recording, Bengali case study) Aleha: Rumana, come on. Im going amma, salam alaikum salam alaikum abba, zaairam aami
The Bengali classroom S1: miss why cant we just go home T: Bangla-e maato etaa Bangla class khaali English maato to etaa Bangla class khene S2: miss you can choose S1:I know English S2:why? T:because tumi Bangali S2:my aunty chose it she speaks English all the time S1:yeah miss Im not gonna come back, not for any more, watch miss (classroom recording Bengali school)
Languaging and negotiation PB: bolwanu Ss: shu bolwanu? PB: je discuss karyu hoi Ss: oh… [chat]…etle we discuss it and then decide what we gonna say…miss ame ek bijanu kaie ke ek ek PB: tame decide karo ke kone bolwu chhe [PB allocates more topics to pairs while Ss chat among themselves] Ss: mane doctor banwu chhe…I dont really want to be a doctor…sorry I do want to be a doctor, actually I dont mind being a doctor…I want to be…you know for the kiddie ones… [chat]… paediatrician… karanke nana chhokra manda pade to sara karwani dawa apwi chhe. Your turn, what do you want to be?
T:chalo, tame taiyar chho? [talks to other Ss] ek...diwas…chalo…. S: what? were still writing…we have written that much [shows book to PB]. Not much, is it? T: shena upper banawi chhe? S: kootro ane wandro T: kootro ne wandro? Shu banawi chhe warta? S: they make friends and they go out T: be mitro chhe ane- S: they are going out T: e bai mitro chhe, kootro ne wandro ne bai farwa jay chhe S: they are going out T: kya farwa jay? S: junglema T: junglema, wandrabhai junglema jai shake? S: no, they are going out [laugh] T: sssh! Pachhi shu thyu?
B: hello, hello, PC1661 [1661 in Cantonese] Ss:[chatting, very noisily. A boy picks up the recorder and speaks into it] B: Spiderman Batman thank you bye-bye (classroom audio-recording, Cantonese school)
Bilingualism is not simply two separate monolingual codes, nor are languages bounded autonomous systems (García 2009:5) we should put at the centre people as actors who signify differently by performing different language practices (García 2010:532)
The question is whether the type of spontaneous negotiation of languages that we see in face to face conversations can be taught in the somewhat constrained context of the classroom (Canagarajah & Liyanage, forthcoming)
Translanguaging pedagogy in the Panjabi classroom Transliteration: a practical strategy in contexts where the written form of a language is unfamiliar or does not otherwise exist (Al-Azami, Kenner, Mahera and Gregory, 2010) Translation: bilingual label quests; repetition and translation across languages Translanguaging: multiple discursive practices in interrelationship (Garcia 2009). Drawing on the totality of verbal resources available, translanguaging goes beyond code-switching but incorporates it Investigating discourses of inheritance and identity in four multilingual European settings
Developing pedagogies which reflect practice What we need is a paradigm shift in language teaching. Pedagogy should be refashioned to accommodate the modes of communication and acquisition seen outside the classroom... (Canagarajah, 2009:210) In the twenty-first century we are aware of the linguistic complexity of the world, in which monolingual schooling seems utterly inappropriate. Language differences are a resource, and bilingual education in all its complexity and forms seems to be the only way to educate as the world moves forward (García, 2009:16) It is essential for language educators to fill up implementational spaces with multilingual educational practices in the face of restrictive policies (Hornberger 2005:606)
Translanguaging as pedagogy? Translanguaging as/for identity Translanguaging in use Translanguaging as medium of instruction Translanguaging in teacher education Translanguaging as target language