Presentation on theme: "Effective Practice in e-learning"— Presentation transcript:
1Effective Practice in e-learning Sarah Knight Programme Manager,JISC Development Group
2Key QuestionsHow can we enhance current knowledge about what constitutes ‘effective’ practice in e-learning?How can we support practitioners with their developments in the use of e-learning?How can we promote the development of terminology that will improve understanding and sharing of practice in e-learning?What are the current approaches to the design of e-learning activities and how can these be developed in the future to ensure that we are using sound pedagogical models?
3e-learning ProgrammeJISC works with post-16 and higher education by providing strategic guidance, advice and opportunities to use ICT to support teaching, learning, research and administration.The JISC Committee for Learning and Teaching (JCLT) is funding a new e-learning Programme to run until August 2007.The overarching aim of the e-learning Programme is to identify how e-learning might be used to facilitate and support learning and to advise on how these approaches might be effectively implemented.The Programme focuses on four areas: e-learning and Pedagogy; Technical Frameworks for e-learning; Innovation and Distributed e-learning.
4Some Definitions Communities across post-16 and HE: Practitioners – whose role it is to support, facilitate and direct student learningILT Champions, e-Guides, educational developers and learning technologistsStaff DevelopersResearchers into learning and e-learningDevelopers of e-learning related software, systems and standardsE-learning – learning facilitated and supported through the use of ICT
5A view of e-learningA Model of e-learning and e-living, Killen, Davies and Smith, adapted from the e-learning Fan, B Powell/J Scribbins,Demonstrating Transformation,
6Effective e-learning? …or effective learning? Relevance Accessible Fun InteractiveEngagingRange of materialsStimulateEncourage feedbackMotivateEnthusiastic teachers and receptive learnersEncourage communication – peer-2-peer and peer-2-tutorWork at own paceDifferentiationIndividualised learning…or effective learning?
7e-learning and Pedagogy Overall aim: to ensure that e-learning as practised in UK post-16 and Higher Education is ‘pedagogically sound, learner-focused and accessible’.What this means in practice:To provide the post-16 and HE community with accurate, up-to-date, evidence- and research-based information about effective practice in the use of e-learning tools.To promote the application and development of e-learning tools and standards to better support effective practice.Practical outcomes which are relevant to practitioners, researchers and developers.
8Two related themes Designing for Learning (Practitioner focus): Models of learning and e-learningpractitioner planning perspectiveUnderstanding and moving on practiceCase studies of effective practice (14-19, FE, HE, ACL)Evaluating learning design toolse.g. Coppercore, Eduplone, LAMS, mindmapping…Practitioner consultation (14-19, FE, HE, ACL)Understanding my learning (Learner focus):learner perspective and learner differencesExploring the potential of e-portfoliosMapping effective assessment for e-learningPeer learning, collaboration and vicarious learningLearner consultation (14-19, FE, HE, ACL)
9Models of learning and e-learning Explore how different approaches to (e)learning can be represented and shared.Develop a general framework within which approaches can be evaluated and compared.Model/represent a limited number of approaches within this frameworkProvide tools to evaluate these approaches in specific learning contextsAdvice and guidance for practitioners on effective use of e-learning
10Understanding and moving on practice Explore how practitioners make effective choices about e-learningDevelop an understanding of how different resources support practitioners, e.g.Case studies, examples, ‘stories’, video-clipsGuidelines, staff development materialsTools (e.g. LAMS) and toolkits/plannersPractices e.g. mentoring, workshopsInvestigate which are effective in practice:Broad (e.g. survey, review of existing materials)Deep (e.g. interviews, personal case histories)Influence the way in which information/advice and guidance from the e-learning Programme is disseminated
11… potential outcomeslesson plans/learning designs for different environmentsrepresentations (e.g. video) of different approaches in usean e-learning planning toola database of activities indexed to specific learning outcomes, contexts, or needsre-usable ‘activity sequences’ e.g. for use in a LAMS-type environmentan online ‘knowledge garden’ in which participants contribute, refine and link e-learning conceptsmaterials for use in staff development, e.g. integrated into FPP modulespublication ‘Effective Practice in e-learning’ with supporting video clips for October 2004development of more effective learning design tools and standardsnew digital library functions and services…
12Case studies of effective practice Describe and evaluate a range of different approaches to e-learning:in a range of organisational contexts:14-19, FE, ACL and HEBlended, face to face and virtualusing a range of technical environments:specific uses of Virtual Learning Environmentsuse of Learning Design tools (e.g LAMS, ReLOAD)use of modular tools (e.g. simulations, scenarios, activities, discipline-specific tools…)Publication ‘Effective Practice in e-learning’ with supporting video clipsfor October 2004.
13Further evaluation studies Further evaluated case studiesdifferent technologies and contextsReview of existing case study resourcesbuild links with repositories, e.g Ferl, JorumRegional workshops on ‘Designing for Learning’Evaluation of learning design tools, e.g. LAMSusabilitylearner impacteffective sharing of designs and approachesLearner consultationtowards the second theme, ‘Understanding my Learning’
14Practitioner consultation Opportunities to participatethrough the experts’ working groupthrough consultation exercises (see delegates’ pack)through workshops and focus groups (forthcoming)Impact on programmeFeedback on outcomes of individual projects and studiesInterpreting outcomes and developing recommendationsIdentifying prioritiesBuilding links with other ongoing workTaking part in further studies
15ActivityWhat are the key ingredients for effective (i.e. pedagogically sound)e-learning?Give an example of effective e-learning in your community3 Priorities for the e-learning and Pedagogy Programme
16Designing for Learning Helen Beetham Consultant, e-Learning and Pedagogy
17What do we mean by… Designing for learning (broad term)? Designing, coordinating, planning, orchestrating and managing learning tasks as part of a learning session or programmeA ‘practitioner planning’ view on a learning situation, e.g. resulting in a lesson plan or a LAMS designLearning Design (narrow term)?A new IMS specification for sequences of interaction between learners and system components (compare LOM for content, PDPs/LR for learner data)A sequence of interactions specified according to LDDoes ‘Learning Design’ in this narrow sense provide a good framework for understanding and supporting the process of ‘Designing for Learning’?
18Why the interest in learning design? Widespread adoption of designed, standards-based learning environments and toolsPedagogical issues… appear to have been of secondary concern until now. JISC/UCISA (2003)First generation VLEs do not obviously support innovative or diverse learning activities… [They are] strongly based around information transmission .. with little consideration given to the activities that the learners themselves might engage in Britain and Liber (2004)Convergence of pedagogical research and practitioner education around ideas oflearner-centredness, ‘active’, constructive learners, outcomes-based teaching with emphasis on relevant tasksNote that practitioners themselves articulate a need for discussion, conversation, ‘common terms’, while the DfES e-learning strategy unit wants to focus on ‘design tools’. Interesting dichotomy which we will return to.
19Why the interest in learning design? Practitioner demand (from consultation):‘curriculum design’, ‘practical examples of learning activities’, ‘designing activities within VLEs’(note the popularity of Salmon’s (2003) e-tivities)‘a means of describing practice’, ‘a means of mapping theory onto practice’ ‘a means of mapping activities onto outcomes’, ‘a common set of terms for all of this’E-learning strategy:Engaging teachers and lecturers through simple e-learning design tools would bring them closer to experimenting with pedagogical design DfES (2003)Note that practitioners themselves articulate a need for discussion, conversation, ‘common terms’, while the DfES e-learning strategy unit wants to focus on ‘design tools’. Interesting dichotomy which we will return to.
20What is effective practice in designing for learning? a process that is acceptable to practitioners, i.e.supports or enhances their approach to learningmakes acceptable demands on their time and skillseffective outcomes for learners, i.e.planned learning outcomes are achieved and/orthe learner experience (motivation, participation, enjoyment, collaboration) is enhanceda means of sharing (and reflecting on?) practicee.g. through sharable sequences, ‘designs’ etcor through more explicit representation of practiceReason for focusing on this framework specifically is that it addresses a number of questions we have already opened up.
21Key tasks (from Review: e-learning models) Define a range of practice models, i.e. distinct but comparable approaches among which practitioners, working in a specific context, can make an informed choice.Ensure any framework or terminology has recognition and usability in the practitioner communitiesConsider theoretical (explanatory) models insofar as these provide general frameworks for discussing, comparing and evaluating practice models (especially in relation to learner experience).Map practice models to technical standards and specifications to ensure that future systems are compatible with the needs of learners and teachers.Evaluate tools to support designing for learningFocus on learning activity/task as the basic unit of modelling:fits with conclusions from UKeU, CANDLE, Dialog+ and work at the OU (eLTN)
22Designing for Learning (1) Developing models and frameworksapplyspecific instances of e-learning in contextBuilding case studiesDescriptive framework (modelling tool)Evaluation framework (evaluation tool)applyFramework with examples of effective practiceanalysereviewcollate evaluatePractitioner consultation & needs analysisrefinegenerateModels/descriptions of different approachesdescribeevaluateEvaluated and enriched models/ descriptions
23Designing for Learning (2) Reviewing interventions in practiceResearching/evaluating interventionsReview of resources, toolkits and guidanceResearch into effectiveness of different interventionsdefine elaborateReview of learning design toolsSeries of evaluations of tools in usesupport develop evaluateTools, resources & standards to support & communicate effective practicedeveloprecommendFramework with examples of effective practice
24Outcomes to date Review of e-learning models Review of learning design toolsConsultation events and online forum (eped-experts)Draft framework for planning e-learning approaches and activitiescompletion by end JulyDraft framework for ‘moving on practice’Case studies and video case studiespublished OctoberLAMS evaluation programmeoutline available: training begins 7th JulyRecommendations, and refined research/ development programmeongoing
25Key issues in designing for learning Is ‘learning activity’ the best focus of e-learning research and development?How should we describe, differentiate and share (e-)learning activities?Need for a common framework of descriptionHow do practitioners currently conceive and plan (e-)learning activities?What tools, resources and opportunities for dialogue do they have?What tools, resources etc are most effective?Which approaches to designing for learning are effective in which learning contexts?Does the LD specification offer:a good fit with definitions of learning activity used by learners, practitioners and theorists?a sound basis for design of supporting systems?
26A specification for learning activities (H.Beetham, Feb ‘04) Environment available tools, facilities, services, resources, environments etcLearner(s) needs, motives, prior experience of learning, social and interpersonal skills, learning styles and approachesOutcome subject/discipline area, target knowledge/ skillsKnowledge represented in specific media and formats; skills facilitated through specific tools; impact of learning environments on the meaning of knowledge and skillsPrior subject knowledge and skills of learner(s), prior conceptions, motivation to achieve specific outcomes, match of style/ approach to contentPrior experience of learner(s) with tools, environments, services; match of learning style and approach to affordances of learning environmentActivity‘interaction of learner with environment, leading to planned outcome’A specification for learning activities (H.Beetham, Feb ‘04)