Presentation on theme: "Matter (Review and New)"— Presentation transcript:
1Matter (Review and New) Recall that all matter can be classified as a mixture or a substance. Up to now we have concentrated on how to classify matter as substances (elements and compounds).Now, we are going to concentrated on how to classify mixtures.
2Heterogeneous Mixtures There are two types of heterogeneous mixtures: suspensions and colloids
3Suspensions Particles are evenly dispersed Particles in suspensions may be filtered outex: you can separate sand and waterParticles may settle out (separate) and are large in size1) Immiscible liquids do not mixex: oil and watera) immiscible liquids can be separated by pouring the less dense liquid off the top (called decanting)
4Particle Size Suspensions > Colloids > Solutions Particles are smaller than the particles in suspensions but are larger than the particles in a solutionParticles cannot be filteredParticles do not settle outTyndall effect scattering of light by a colloidParticle Size Suspensions > Colloids > Solutions
5Examples of colloids: gelatin desserts, whipped cream, smoke, and fog Emulsion is a colloid in which liquids that normally do not mix are spread throughout each otherExamples:1) Mayonaise egg yolk holds oil and vinegar together2) Bile allows your body to breakdown fata) emulsifier substance that holds the immiscible liquid together
6Homogeneous Solutions (Solutions) Homogeneous mixtures are uniform throughout; all samples are the sameAll homogeneous mixtures are solutionsA solution is a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances uniformly dispersed throughout a single phaseSolutions are made of solutes and solvents1) solute – what is dissolved2) solvent – what does the dissolving; present in the greatest amount
7Miscible Liquids mix to form solutions Miscible is defined as 2 or more liquids that form a single layer when mixedEx: rubbing alcohol (water and isopropanol)Miscible liquids can be separated by distillation (boiling off one liquid)a) Distillation only works with liquids that have different boiling points
8Other States of Matter (beside liquids) can form solutions Many common solutions are solids dissolved in liquids (salt water)Solutions can be made by dissolving a liquid in another liquid (vinegar is made of acetic acid dissolved in water)Gases dissolved in gases are solutions (air)Gases can be dissolved in liquids (CO2 dissolved in water gives soda the fizz)
95) Gases can be dissolved in solids to make solutions (moth balls) 6) Solids dissolved in solids make a solution (brass is made of copper and zinc)a) An alloy defined as a solid or a liquid mixture of two or more metals.
10SolutionsA solution is a mixture that has the same composition, color, density, and taste throughout.The atoms in a solution are evenly spread out.Solutions are homogeneous
11Phases of SolutionsSolutions can exist in the solid, liquid, and gas phasesAll mixtures of gases are solutions, including airSolutions in the solid phase are called alloys.Examples of alloys are:Brass, coins
13Solutes and Solvents Solute is the substance that is being dissolved. Solvent is what does the dissolving (typically water)Example: Salt waterSalt is the soluteWater is the solvent
14Water: A polar molecule Polar slightly positive and slightly negative endsBecause water is a polar molecule, it is known as the Universal SolventOxygen end has a slightly (-) charge, Hydrogen has a slightly (+) charge.O-H+H+
15Dissolving a Solid in a Liquid Dissolving salt in water.NaCl is held together by an ionic bond. However, the Cl end is more negative than the Na end.Step OneThe moving water molecules collide with the salt molecules as the water’s negative ends are attracted to the positive ends of the salt molecules.Cl-Na+H+Cl-H+Na+O-O-H+H+
16Step Two:The water molecules surround and pull the salt molecule apart creating Na+ and Cl- into solution.The attractive forces between the water and salt molecules are stronger than the forces holding the NaCl molecule together.H+H+O-Cl-Na+O-H+H+
17Step ThreeThe water molecules and salt molecules spread out to form a homogeneous solution.The process continues until all the salt molecules have dissolved.
18Non polar MoleculesNon polar materials have no positive or negative ends.Are not attracted to water, so they do not dissolve easily in waterExamples: oil, soap
19Rate of DissolvingStirring will increase the dissolving rate. By stirring a solution, more fresh solvent comes into contact with the solute.Crushing the solvent will increase the dissolving rate. Crushing creates more surface area for the solvent to interact with.Increasing the temperature will also increase the dissolving rate. Increasing the temperature speeds up the movement of the solute molecules creating more solute/solvent collisions
20How much can dissolve?Solubility is the maximum amount of solute that can be dissolved in a given amount of solvent at a given temperature.Each beaker contains the same amount of water and water of the same temperature. Only 1g of “A” dissolves in 100 mL of water, but more than 3g of “B” dissolves in the same amount of water at the same temperature. Substance B is more soluble.
21Solubility CurvesCompare the solubility of different substances at different conditionsNotice that for most solutes, as temperature increases more solute is able to dissolve.
22How much potassium nitrate will dissolve at 80°C in 100 g of water?
23How much potassium nitrate will dissolve at 80°C in 100 g of water?
24At what temperature will 100 g of potassium bromide dissolve in 100 g of water?
25At what temperature will 100 g of potassium bromide dissolve in 100 g of water? 95°C
26ConcentrationConcentrated solution large amount of solute in the solventDilute solution small amount of solute in the solvent“watered down”
27Types of SolutionsSaturated Solutions contains all the solute it can hold at a given temperature.Unsaturated Solutions can dissolve more solute at a given temperature.Supersaturated Solution contains more solute than a saturated solution at the same temperaturea) unstable if you disturb them, crystals will form
28The Solubility of Gases Depend on the temperature and pressureIncrease temperature then solubility of gas decreases because the gas molecules move around faster and escape the liquid.Increase pressure then solubility of gas increases because the pressure holds the gas molecules in the liquid.
29Gas solubility and fish Amount of oxygen gas in water decreases as temperature increases.Fish will go to the bottom of ponds or lakes during warm weather because that is where the oxygen is located.