Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Susan Gendron Senior Fellow, International Center

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Susan Gendron Senior Fellow, International Center"— Presentation transcript:

1 Instructional Shifts for Making “Fewer, Clearer, and Higher” A Reality Session 31
Susan Gendron Senior Fellow, International Center Model Schools Conference 2012

2 What’s different about CCSS?
These Standards are not intended to be new names for old ways of doing business. They are a call to take the next step. It is time for states to work together to build on lessons learned from two decades of standards based reforms. It is time to recognize that standards are not just promises to our children, but promises we intend to keep. — CCSS (2010, p.5) Too often in the past, important components of NCTM Standards, such as the process standards, were voluntary for teachers to implement. Now, with CCSS, standard assessments are part of state’s adoptions of the standards. And, because those assessments will address all aspects of the standards, implementing these more challenging aspects of the standards will be mandatory, not voluntary.

3 Shared Responsibility for Students’ Literacy Development
“The Standards insist that instruction in reading, speaking, listening, and language be a shared responsibility within the school” (p. 4). “This division reflects the unique time-honored place of ELA teachers in developing students’ literacy skills while at the same time recognizing that teachers in other areas must have a role in this development as well” (p. 4). Adapted from “Key Design Considerations” (page 4 of the Standards)

4 Increasing Sophistication
Reading Anchor Standard #9 Integration of Knowledge and Ideas Analyze how two or more texts address similar themes or topics in order to build knowledge or to compare the approaches the authors take. Kindergarten Grades 11-CCR Integration of Knowledge and Ideas 9. Compare and contrast the most important points and key details presented in two texts on the same topic. Integration of Knowledge and Ideas 9. Integrate information from diverse sources, both primary and secondary, into a coherent understanding of an idea or event, noting discrepancies among sources.

5 Six Shifts in ELA/Literacy
Balancing Informational and Literary Text Building Knowledge in the Disciplines Staircase of Complexity Text-Based Answers Writing From Sources Academic Vocabulary

6 Balancing Literature and Informational Text
Shift 1 Balancing Literature and Informational Text

7 Literary/Informational Text
Literature Informational Text Stories Drama Poetry Literary Nonfiction and Historical, Scientific, and Technical Texts Includes children’s adventure stories, folktales, legends, fables, fantasy, realistic fiction, and myth Includes staged dialogue and brief familiar scenes Includes nursery rhymes and the subgenres of the narrative poem, limerick, and free verse poem Includes biographies and autobiographies; books about history, social studies, science, and the arts; technical texts, including directions, forms, and information displayed in graphs, charts, or maps; and digital sources on a range of topics

8 Reading Framework Grade Literary Informational 4 50% 8 45% 55% 12 30%
70% Standards demand a greater focus on informational text literary non fiction Major focus in 6-12

9 Teaching Channel Sarah Brown Wessiling http://www. teachingchannel


11 Building Knowledge in the Disciplines
Shift #2 Building Knowledge in the Disciplines

12 Why Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science and Technical?
Students are consistently unable to meet the demands of reading text within a particular discipline. Reading within a discipline is different than reading literature. The ability to read within the discipline is important to citizenship. Being literate across a broad range of disciplines is required to be considered College and Career Ready.

13 How is reading history/social studies different from other types of reading?
History is interpretive. History is an argument in favor of a particular narrative. Who the author is matters. (sourcing) The author’s purpose matters. (bias and perspective) A single text is problematic. (corroboration)

14 How is reading science and technical reading different from other types of reading?
Focus is on claims and counter claims Precise details, complex details and processes Analyze results by comparing Determining what question is being raised Navigate text, graphs, tables, charts Evaluate basis for claims

15 Staircase of Text Complexity
Shift #3 Staircase of Text Complexity

16 Text Complexity and Common Core
Teachers must understand what is complex text Teachers need to assist students in reading complex text Scaffolded instruction for every learners

17 Text complexity is defined by:
Overview of Text Complexity Reading Standards include over exemplar texts (stories and literature, poetry, and informational texts) that illustrate appropriate level of complexity by grade Text complexity is defined by: Qualitative Qualitative measures – levels of meaning, structure, language conventionality and clarity, and knowledge demands Quantitative Quantitative measures – readability and other scores of text complexity Best measured by an attentive reader Ability to make an informed decision about the difficulty of a text Knowledge of four factors in developing effective tools: Levels of Meaning or Purpose Reader and Task: Determining whether a given text is appropriate for the student: Cognitive abilities Motivation Topic knowledge Linguistic and discourse knowledge Comprehension strategies Experiences “Reading for Understanding, 2002, The RAND Reading Study group” Quantitative:Word length or frequency (Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level text, Dale-Chall Readability Formula, Lexile) Sentence length Text cohesion (University of Memphis, Coh-Metrix) Measurement tools ( Lexile example Structure Language Conventionality & Clarity Knowledge Demands Reader and Task Reader and Task – background knowledge of reader, motivation, interests, and complexity generated by tasks assigned

18 Text Difficulty is not the issue Instruction is
Teachers can scaffold and support students, which will determine the amount of their learning and literacy independence Text Complexity Raising Rigor in Reading Doug Fisher, Nancy Frey and Diane Lapp

19 Shift #4 Text Based Answers

20 High-quality, Text-dependent Questions & Tasks
“Among the highest priorities of the Common Core Standards is that students can read closely and gain knowledge from texts.”

21 Text Based Questions Only answered with reference to the text
Ask student to focus on unique qualities of the text Require students to draw evidence from the text May ask students to follow logic of the author’s argument Students return to text to check their interpretation

22 Shift #5 Writing from Sources

23 CCSS Emphasis in Writing
Three types of writing Writing Process Quality of student writing Writing across the content areas Research Citing evidence from text within writing

24 Three types Argument/Persuasive Explanatory/Informational Narrative

25 Explanatory/Informational
Report Analytical description Research report Science lab report How-to Fact sheet Directions

26 Narrative Fiction Fantasy Story Biography Personal narrative

27 Argument/Persuasive Persuasive letter Review Personal essay Historical
Literary Claims/counter claims – Science editorial

28 NAEP 2011 Writing Framework
Grade To Persuade To Explain To Convey Experience 4 30% 35% 8 12 40% 20%

29 Shift #6 Academic Vocabulary

30 Language Progressive Skills
Tier I - words of everyday speech Tier II - general academic words, typically found in text, ways to communicate simple ideas Tier III - domain-specific words (informational text) Handout to be used with language section

31 Speaking and Listening
Not a shift, but of increased importance Comprehension and collaboration Presentation Integration of diverse media Varied audiences Tone

32 32

33 Mathematics Instructional Shifts
1. Focus 2. Coherence 3. Fluency 4. Deep Understanding 5. Application 6. Dual Intensity Dual intensity – students are practicing and understanding

34 Focus – Shift # 1 Key ideas, understandings, and skills are identified
Deep learning of concepts is stressed That is, time is spent on a topic and on learning it well. This counters the “mile wide, inch deep” criticism leveled at most current U.S. standards.

35 Coherence – Shift #2 Articulated progressions of topics and performances that are developmental and connected to other progressions Conceptual understanding and procedural skills emphasized equally NCTM states coherence also means that instruction, assessment, and curriculum are aligned

36 Shift #3 Fluency

37 Rigor -Require fluency, application, and deep understanding
Conceptual understanding – solving short conceptual problems, applying math in new situations, and speaking about their understanding Procedural skill and fluency - speed and accuracy in calculation. Application - “real world” situations

38 Reasoning Invite Exploration of important mathematical concepts
Allow students to solidify and make connections Make connections and develop coherent framework for mathematical ideas Problem formulation, problem solving and mathematical reasoning

39 Reasoning More than one solution
Development of all students’ disposition to do math

40 Mathematically proficient students
Make conjectures Build logical progressions to explore the truth of their conjectures Justify and communicate their conclusions Respond to arguments

41 Which number does not belong? Why?
Instead of asking which numbers are odd? From: Math for All: Differentiating Instruction, Grades 3-5, Dacey and Lynch

42 Procedural Fluency Knowledgeable about procedures
Know when and how to use them Skill in performing procedures flexibly, accurately, efficiently and with understanding

43 Shift #4 Deep Understanding

44 Cognitively-Guided Instruction Process
Start the study of a new concept with a rich problem or hypothesis Invite your students to engage in the problem Communicate multiple representations of solutions Questions, justify, and critique thinking Use your understanding of student thinking to guide further instruction

45 Mathematics/Standards for Mathematical Practice
Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them Reason abstractly and quantitatively Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others Model with mathematics Use appropriate tools strategically Attend to precision Look for and make use of structure Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning 1.Analyze givens, constraints, relationships and goals

46 Shift #5 Application

47 Modeling Identify the problem Formulate a model
Analyze and perform operations Interpret results Validate the conclusion Report on the conclusion

48 Shift #6 Dual Intensity


50 How can an administrator support teachers in implementation?
Professional development 2, ½ days of DESK Academy in November and March Teachers share examples as part of faculty meetings Conversations about resources teachers are using Conversations about how teachers are engaging students Early out/Late Start—more time for common planning and collaboration

51 Support continued… Reduce or eliminate “something”; don’t do anything “new”; focus on the implementation of the new core EAS Process Require professional goals to be centered on implementing the new core Teachers as “guide on the side” not “sage on the stage”.

Download ppt "Susan Gendron Senior Fellow, International Center"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google