Presentation on theme: "Susan Gendron Senior Fellow, International Center"— Presentation transcript:
1 Instructional Shifts for Making “Fewer, Clearer, and Higher” A Reality Session 31 Susan GendronSenior Fellow, International CenterModel Schools Conference 2012
2 What’s different about CCSS? These Standards are not intended to be new names for old ways of doing business. They are a call to take the next step. It is time for states to work together to build on lessons learned from two decades of standards based reforms. It is time to recognize that standards are not just promises to our children, but promises we intend to keep.— CCSS (2010, p.5)Too often in the past, important components of NCTM Standards, such as the process standards, were voluntary for teachers to implement.Now, with CCSS, standard assessments are part of state’s adoptions of the standards. And, because those assessments will address all aspects of the standards, implementing these more challenging aspects of the standards will be mandatory, not voluntary.
3 Shared Responsibility for Students’ Literacy Development “The Standards insist that instruction in reading, speaking, listening, and language be a shared responsibility within the school” (p. 4).“This division reflects the unique time-honored place of ELA teachers in developing students’ literacy skills while at the same time recognizing that teachers in other areas must have a role in this development as well” (p. 4).Adapted from “Key Design Considerations” (page 4 of the Standards)
4 Increasing Sophistication Reading Anchor Standard #9 Integration of Knowledge and IdeasAnalyze how two or more texts address similar themes or topics in order to build knowledge or to compare the approaches the authors take.KindergartenGrades 11-CCRIntegration of Knowledge and Ideas9. Compare and contrast the most important points and key details presented in two texts on the same topic.Integration of Knowledge and Ideas9. Integrate information from diverse sources, both primary and secondary, into a coherent understanding of an idea or event, noting discrepancies among sources.
5 Six Shifts in ELA/Literacy Balancing Informational and Literary TextBuilding Knowledge in the DisciplinesStaircase of ComplexityText-Based AnswersWriting From SourcesAcademic Vocabulary
6 Balancing Literature and Informational Text Shift 1Balancing Literature and Informational Text
7 Literary/Informational Text LiteratureInformational TextStoriesDramaPoetryLiterary Nonfiction and Historical, Scientific, and Technical TextsIncludes children’s adventure stories, folktales, legends, fables, fantasy, realistic fiction, and mythIncludes staged dialogue and brief familiar scenesIncludes nursery rhymes and the subgenres of the narrative poem, limerick, and free verse poemIncludes biographies and autobiographies; books about history, social studies, science, and the arts; technical texts, including directions, forms, and information displayed in graphs, charts, or maps; and digital sources on a range of topics
8 Reading Framework Grade Literary Informational 4 50% 8 45% 55% 12 30% 70%Standards demand a greater focus on informational text literary non fictionMajor focus in 6-12
9 Teaching Channel Sarah Brown Wessiling http://www. teachingchannel
11 Building Knowledge in the Disciplines Shift #2Building Knowledge in the Disciplines
12 Why Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science and Technical? Students are consistently unable to meet the demands of reading text within a particular discipline.Reading within a discipline is different than reading literature.The ability to read within the discipline is important to citizenship.Being literate across a broad range of disciplines is required to be considered College and Career Ready.
13 How is reading history/social studies different from other types of reading? History is interpretive.History is an argument in favor of a particular narrative.Who the author is matters. (sourcing)The author’s purpose matters. (bias and perspective)A single text is problematic. (corroboration)
14 How is reading science and technical reading different from other types of reading? Focus is on claims and counter claimsPrecise details, complex details and processesAnalyze results by comparingDetermining what question is being raisedNavigate text, graphs, tables, chartsEvaluate basis for claims
15 Staircase of Text Complexity Shift #3Staircase of Text Complexity
16 Text Complexity and Common Core Teachers must understand what is complex textTeachers need to assist students in reading complex textScaffolded instruction for every learners
17 Text complexity is defined by: Overview of Text ComplexityReading Standards include over exemplar texts (stories and literature, poetry, and informational texts) that illustrate appropriate level of complexity by gradeText complexity is defined by:QualitativeQualitative measures – levels of meaning, structure, language conventionality and clarity, and knowledge demandsQuantitativeQuantitative measures – readability and other scores of text complexityBest measured by an attentive readerAbility to make an informed decision about the difficulty of a textKnowledge of four factors in developing effective tools:Levels of Meaning or PurposeReader and Task: Determining whether a given text is appropriate for the student:Cognitive abilitiesMotivationTopic knowledgeLinguistic and discourse knowledgeComprehension strategiesExperiences“Reading for Understanding, 2002, The RAND Reading Study group”Quantitative:Word length or frequency (Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level text, Dale-Chall Readability Formula, Lexile)Sentence lengthText cohesion (University of Memphis, Coh-Metrix)Measurement tools ( Lexile exampleStructureLanguage Conventionality & ClarityKnowledge DemandsReader and TaskReader and Task – background knowledge of reader, motivation, interests, and complexity generated by tasks assigned
18 Text Difficulty is not the issue Instruction is Teachers can scaffold and support students, which will determine the amount of their learning and literacy independenceText Complexity Raising Rigor in Reading Doug Fisher, Nancy Frey and Diane Lapp
20 High-quality, Text-dependent Questions & Tasks “Among the highest priorities of the Common Core Standards is that students can read closely and gain knowledge from texts.”
21 Text Based Questions Only answered with reference to the text Ask student to focus on unique qualities of the textRequire students to draw evidence from the textMay ask students to follow logic of the author’s argumentStudents return to text to check their interpretation
30 Language Progressive Skills Tier I - words of everyday speechTier II - general academic words, typically found in text, ways to communicate simple ideasTier III - domain-specific words (informational text)Handout to be used with language section
31 Speaking and Listening Not a shift, but of increased importanceComprehension and collaborationPresentationIntegration of diverse mediaVaried audiencesTone
33 Mathematics Instructional Shifts 1. Focus2. Coherence3. Fluency4. Deep Understanding5. Application6. Dual IntensityDual intensity – students are practicing and understanding
34 Focus – Shift # 1 Key ideas, understandings, and skills are identified Deep learning of concepts is stressedThat is, time is spent on a topic and on learning it well. This counters the “mile wide, inch deep” criticism leveled at most current U.S. standards.
35 Coherence – Shift #2Articulated progressions of topics and performances that are developmental and connected to other progressionsConceptual understanding and procedural skills emphasized equallyNCTM states coherence also means that instruction, assessment, and curriculum are aligned
37 Rigor -Require fluency, application, and deep understanding Conceptual understanding – solving short conceptual problems, applying math in new situations, and speaking about their understandingProcedural skill and fluency - speed and accuracy in calculation.Application - “real world” situations
38 Reasoning Invite Exploration of important mathematical concepts Allow students to solidify and make connectionsMake connections and develop coherent framework for mathematical ideasProblem formulation, problem solving and mathematical reasoning
39 Reasoning More than one solution Development of all students’ disposition to do math
40 Mathematically proficient students Make conjecturesBuild logical progressions to explore the truth of their conjecturesJustify and communicate their conclusionsRespond to arguments
41 Which number does not belong? Why? Instead of asking which numbers are odd?From: Math for All: Differentiating Instruction, Grades 3-5, Dacey and Lynch
42 Procedural Fluency Knowledgeable about procedures Know when and how to use themSkill in performing procedures flexibly, accurately, efficiently and with understanding
44 Cognitively-Guided Instruction Process Start the study of a new concept with a rich problem or hypothesisInvite your students to engage in the problemCommunicate multiple representations of solutionsQuestions, justify, and critique thinkingUse your understanding of student thinking to guide further instruction
45 Mathematics/Standards for Mathematical Practice Make sense of problems and persevere in solving themReason abstractly and quantitativelyConstruct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of othersModel with mathematicsUse appropriate tools strategicallyAttend to precisionLook for and make use of structureLook for and express regularity in repeated reasoning1.Analyze givens, constraints, relationships and goals
50 How can an administrator support teachers in implementation? Professional development2, ½ days of DESK Academy in November and MarchTeachers share examples as part of faculty meetingsConversations about resources teachers are usingConversations about how teachers are engaging studentsEarly out/Late Start—more time for common planning and collaboration
51 Support continued…Reduce or eliminate “something”; don’t do anything “new”; focus on the implementation of the new coreEAS ProcessRequire professional goals to be centered on implementing the new coreTeachers as “guide on the side” not “sage on the stage”.
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