Presentation on theme: "Modesto Common Core Reading October 11, 2012. Today’s agenda Focus for the day – Reading AM Session 1. Understanding Rigor/Relevance Framework 2. Exploring."— Presentation transcript:
Today’s agenda Focus for the day – Reading AM Session 1. Understanding Rigor/Relevance Framework 2. Exploring the Reading strand in the CCSS 3. Practice with Text Complexity 4. Text Based Questions.
Today’s agenda PM Session –Create a literacy unit using the R/R Framework Incorporate text you identified in the Text Complexity exercise Incorporate Text based Questions Design a Quad D assessment January – Reflection/sharing
Six Shifts in ELA/Literacy Balancing Informational and Literary Text Building Knowledge in the Disciplines Staircase of Complexity Text-Based Answers Writing From Sources Academic Vocabulary 4
CCSS ELA & Literacy Strand Foundational Skills K-5 –Will be measured by teachers K-2 intensively 3-5 Systematically at grade levels Assessmentts –Formative –Diagnostis –Modify instruction and remidiation
Reading Standards for Literature K-5 and 6-12 Anchor standard 1 governs standards 2-9 Focuses and use evidence to support analyses, claims conclusions, and inferences about text Standard 1 underlies each Assessment Target
Reading Standard 1 Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it; cite specific textual evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions drawn from the text.
What is a claim? “Claims” are the broad statements of the assessment system’s learning outcomes, each of which requires evidence that articulates the types of data/observations that will support interpretations of competence towards achievement of the claims
The Smarter Balanced Assessment Consortium English Language Arts Content Specifications Claim 1: Students can read closely and analytically to comprehend a range of increasingly complex literary and informational texts. Reading, literary and informational text. Claim 2: Students can produce effective and well grounded writing for a range of purpose and audiences. Claim 3: Students can employ effective speaking and listening skills for a range of purposes and audiences. Claim 4: Students can engage in research/inquiry to investigate topics, and to analyze, integrate, and present information.
Assessment Targets (evidence) Describe the expectations of what will be assessed by the items and tasks within each claim. Prioritized content Shows how one or more of the Common Core State Standards (or parts of standards) address the target
Claim 1 Students can read closely and analytically to comprehend a range of increasingly complex literary and informational texts. 1.Targets 1–7 correspond with literary texts 2.Targets 8–14 correspond with informational texts 3.The assessment targets incorporate the content clusters from the Common Core State Standards
Assessment targets for Literacy 1. Key Details - DOK 1,2 2. Central Ideas – DOK 2 3. Word Meaning – DOK 1,2 4. Reasoning and Evaluation – DOK 3,4 5. Analysis within or across texts – DOK 3,4 6. Text stimulus and features – DOK 3,4 7. Language Use – DOK 2,3
Assessment Targets for Informational Text 8. Key details – DOK 1,2 9. Central Ideas – DOK 2 10. Word Meaning – DOK 1,2 11. Reasoning and Evaluation – DOK 3,4 12. Analysis within or across texts – DOK 2.3 Elem; 3,4 MS and HS 13. Text Structures and Features – DOK 2 Elem, 3,4 MS and HS 14. Language Use – DOK 2,3 Elem; 3 MS and HS
New assessment prototypes http://www.smarterbalanced.org
Shift 1 Balancing Literature and Informational Text
19 Literature Informational Text StoriesDramaPoetryLiterary Nonfiction and Historical, Scientific, and Technical Texts Includes children’s adventure stories, folktales, legends, fables, fantasy, realistic fiction, and myth Includes staged dialogue and brief familiar scenes Includes nursery rhymes and the subgenres of the narrative poem, limerick, and free verse poem Includes biographies and autobiographies; books about history, social studies, science, and the arts; technical texts, including directions, forms, and information displayed in graphs, charts, or maps; and digital sources on a range of topics Literary/Informational Text
How is reading history/social studies different from other types of reading? History is interpretive. History is an argument in favor of a particular narrative. Who the author is matters. (sourcing) The author’s purpose matters. (bias and perspective) A single text is problematic. (corroboration)
How is reading science and technical reading different from other types of reading? Focus is on claims and counter claims Precise details, complex details and processes Analyze results by comparing Determining what question is being raised Navigate text, graphs, tables, charts Evaluate basis for claims
25 Overview of Text Complexity Reading Standards include over exemplar texts (stories and literature, poetry, and informational texts) that illustrate appropriate level of complexity by grade Text complexity is defined by: Qualitative 1.Qualitative measures – levels of meaning, structure, language conventionality and clarity, and knowledge demands Quantitative 2.Quantitative measures – readability and other scores of text complexity Reader and Task 3.Reader and Task – background knowledge of reader, motivation, interests, and complexity generated by tasks assigned
Staircasing Texts Text at Low End of Grade Band Text Between Low End and Middle of Grade Band Text Near Middle of Grade Band Text Between Middle and High End of Grade Band Text at High End of Grade Band Beginning of Year End of Year Toward CCR
27 Step 1: Qualitative Measures Measures such as: Levels of meaning Levels of purpose Structure Organization Language conventionality Language clarity Prior knowledge demands
28 Measures such as: Word length Word frequency Word difficulty Sentence length Text length Text cohesion Step 2: Quantitative Measures
Text Complexity Grade Bands and Associated Lexile Ranges Text Complexity Grade Band in the Standards Old Lexile RangesLexile Ranges Aligned to CCR expectations K-1N/A 2-3450-725450-790 4-5645-845770-980 6-8860-1010955-1155 9-10960-11151080-1305 11-CCR1070-12201215-1355
32 Step 3: Reader and Task Considerations such as: Motivation Knowledge and experience Purpose for reading Complexity of task assigned regarding text Complexity of questions asked regarding text
Step 4: Recommended Placement 33 Step 4: Recommended Placement After reflecting upon all three legs of the text complexity model we can make a final recommendation of placement within a text and begin to document our thinking for future reference.
High-quality, Text-dependent Questions & Tasks “Among the highest priorities of the Common Core Standards is that students can read closely and gain knowledge from texts.” “More questions that can be answered only with reference to the text.” “Sequences of questions should elicit a sustained discussion.” Tasks must “require the use of more textual evidence.”
Writing and Research the Analyzes and Deploys Evidence Draw evidence from texts to support and develop: Analysis Reflection Research Increase opportunities to write in response to sources Extensive practice with short, focused research projects “typically taking a week and occurring—at a minimum—quarterly” Increase focus on argumentation and informative writing, less narrative writing
Language Progressive Skills 40 Tier I - words of everyday speech Tier II - general academic words, typically found in text, ways to communicate simple ideas Tier III - domain-specific words (informational text)
Close Reading Students will: 1.engage with a text of sufficient complexity examine its meaning thoroughly and methodically read and reread deliberately. understand the central ideas and key supporting details.
Close Reading reflect on the meanings of individual words and sentences; understand the order in which sentences unfold; and the development of ideas over the course of the text, gather observations about a text more sensitive to inconsistencies, ambiguities, and poor reasoning in texts.
Close Reading Students can: Make comparisons and synthesize ideas Use meaning developed through the analysis of words, phrases, sentences and paragraph to make connections among ideas across multiple text
Selecting texts Short text of sufficient complexity –Poems, short stories, magazine articles Extended texts –Book-length information text, magazine with a series of related articles or stories or a website with multiple related pages of grade- level text
Cite evidence and analyze content Students learn to draw sufficient evidence from a range of different types of complex text
Understand and apply vocabulary Academic vocabulary is taught in context Helping students make connections Identify patterns in language Acquire word meaning through reading Build fluency, improve comprehension
Understand and apply grammar Students will gain a strong command of grammar and usage through extensive reading
Explicit comprehension instruction should not be delayed until students are able to read grade-level text independently. Read-alouds and the use of text-based discussions are opportunities to help students learn from complex informational text, especially when students are just learning to read or if students struggle to read informational text independently (Beck & McKeown, 2001; Snow, Burns, & Griffin, 1998). 48 “Reading to learn”
Students who struggle with reading can successfully handle informational text when instruction includes –explicit teaching of text structure, –procedural facilitators such as think sheets, prompt cards, and mnemonics, and –the use of teacher modeling and guided feedback (Gersten & Baker, 2000, 2001; Williams, 2008) – From K-12 Teachers: Building Comprehension in the Common Core 49 Students who struggle
When discussion followed the read-aloud, students seemed to prefer informational text. When no discussion followed the read-aloud, the students preferred narrative text. Research also suggests that students are more likely to select informational text for independent reading if their teacher used the informational text in a read- aloud Dreher & Dromsky, 2000; Duke, Bennett-Armistead, & Roberts, 2003). – From K-12 Teachers: Building Comprehension in the Common Core 50 Young children’s preference
Time spent with informational texts Books on a wide variety of topics that interest elementary grade children Informational texts and stories grouped in a thematic unit Graphic organizers Explicit comprehension strategy instruction Teachers and students using a core set of questions. 51 Classroom snapshot: You would see
Teacher and student-initiated questions about the text Teacher-facilitated read-aloud and text-based discussions Use of before-during-after reading components to discuss the text and apply comprehension strategies Students retelling what they learned from an informational text with a partner Teachers and students using content language and text-related academic language 52 Classroom snapshot: You would hear