Presentation on theme: "CONSTITUTIONAL FREEDOMS Ch. 13 Notes. Constitutional Rights All men are endowed by their creator with certain unalienable rights, that among these are."— Presentation transcript:
Constitutional Rights All men are endowed by their creator with certain unalienable rights, that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. All people have human rights or fundamental freedoms. Our Constitution guarantees these freedoms in the Bill of Rights and later amendments.
Constitutional Rights The Bill of Rights was originally intended as protection from the federal government. Incorporation then applied the Bill of Rights to ALL levels of government. The Constitution originally didnt have a bill of rights, but states refused to sign it without one.
Constitutional Rights As time has changed, so has the Constitution. This is possible because the Constitution is considered a living document. The 14 th Amendment paved the way for a major expansion of individual rights. –No state shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States, nor shall any state deprive any person of life, liberty, or property without due process of law This is called the Due Process Clause
Freedom of Religion Freedom of religion is highlighted by 2 things. –Establishment Clause Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion –Free Exercise Clause …or the free exercise thereof The establishment clause created the separation of church and state idea. How separated is separation
Freedom of Religion Does government ban religion in official places and functions? –Ten Commandments removed from courtrooms –Prayer removed from school Or do they encourage it? –Politicians are sworn into office in the name of God –In God We Trust on money –One nation under God in pledge of allegiance –Chaplains serve in military –Congress opens with prayer
Freedom of Religion Famous Freedom of Religion Cases –Engel v. Vitale Non denominational prayer used in school –Lynch v. Donnelly Public Christmas displays –Reynolds v. United States Polygamy in Utah
Freedom of Speech Types of speech –Pure speech The most common form of speech Uses only words to express ideas Supreme Court provides the strongest protection for this kind of speech –Symbolic Speech Uses actions and symbols to express ideas This type of free speech may be regulated
Freedom of Speech The Supreme Court uses a 3-part test to decide whether to ban free speech. –Does it fall within the Constitutional power of the government –Does it further another government interest unrelated to suppressing speech –Does it leave open other channels of free speech This test was established in Unites States v. OBrian
Freedom of Speech Speech CAN be banned for the betterment of society. –Seditious speech is illegal –Speech that presents a clear and present danger is illegal –Bad Tendency Doctrine speech is illegal –Defamatory speech is illegal (libel and slander included) –Fighting words are illegal Words that are so insulting as to provoke immediate violence is illegal Freedom of speech holds a preferred position over other freedoms
Freedom of Speech Student Speech –While students have SOME free speech rights, the Supreme Court has drastically reduced them. Bethel School District v. Fraser –School officials can decide what manner of speech in the classroom or school activities is appropriate (this means football games) Hazelwood School District v. Kuhlmeier –School officials have sweeping authority to regulate student speech in school sponsored newspapers, theatrical productions, and other activities.