1-What lies at the heart of the American political system? §The belief in human rights
2-The Bill of Rights stands as a written guarantee that government cannot do what? §Abuse the rights of individuals
3-For what was the Bill of Rights originally intended to offer protection from? § The Actions of the Federal government
4-Did the Bill of Rights originally apply to the actions of state and local government? §NO! Just the National Government
THE 14 th AMENDMENT  §No state shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any state deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.
5-Explain how the 14 th Amendment paved the way for a major expansion of individual rights. §It laid the groundwork for making individual rights national. l NO STATE may deprive any person life, liberty and property without due process of the law. The state’s have to provide its citizens: “equal protection of the law
6-How has the Supreme Court interpreted the due process clause of the 14 th Amendment? §It has applied the guarantees of the Bill of Rights to state and local government. §Liberty includes all 1 st Amendment freedoms: l No state can deny any person of freedom of speech; press, religion. Assembly or petitions because these freedoms are essential to liberty.
7-Define: “incorporation” §The process by which the Bill of Rights was extended to state and local governments.
8-How does incorporation occur? §Through Supreme Court cases that raise a specific issue
9-What did the Court rule in Gitlow v. New York (1925)? §Freedom of speech is a basic right no state government could deny anyone.
10-Which amendments of the Bill of Rights or parts of those amendments have yet to be incorporated? §2 nd Incorporated in 2010 §3 rd Quartering Soldiers §5 th The right to a grand jury in a criminal case §7 th The right to have a trial by jury in civil cases involving more than $20.00 §8 th excessive bails and fines. §9 th Not a source of individual rights §10 th: Not a source of individual rights: A reservation of power to the states
11- a. What is the importance of incorporation? §US citizens in every state have the same basic human rights
b. Why is incorporation necessary it necessary? §In the past, state governments have ignored individual rights, denied voting rights to minority citizens and practiced various forms of discrimination. §
12-What are some of the fundamental freedoms all citizens have? §Right to speak freely; to read and write what they choose; to worship or not worship.
13-Which branch of government has been primarily responsible for the incorporation of the Bill of Rights? §JUDICIAL BRANCH
14-If you believe that a state or local authority has denied you your basic rights, what can you do? §Take you case to the federal court system. §Possibly to the Supreme Court.