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Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Chapter 5.

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Presentation on theme: "Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Chapter 5."— Presentation transcript:

1 Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Chapter 5

2 5.1 Energy and Living Things Remember: Metabolism is either the energy used to build molecules or the release of energy by breaking down molecules Remember: Metabolism is either the energy used to build molecules or the release of energy by breaking down molecules

3 Photosynthesis Turn light energy into chemical energy Turn light energy into chemical energy Autotrophs – make their own food Autotrophs – make their own food Most are photosynthetic Most are photosynthetic Some are chemosynthetic (get energy from inorganic compounds) Some are chemosynthetic (get energy from inorganic compounds)

4 Cellular Respiration Get energy from food Get energy from food Heterotrophs – must ingest energy Heterotrophs – must ingest energy Produces ATP Produces ATP

5 Transfer of Energy to ATP Energy from food released gradually in a series of enzyme-assisted chemical reactions Energy from food released gradually in a series of enzyme-assisted chemical reactions Product of 1 reaction becomes the reactant in the next reaction Product of 1 reaction becomes the reactant in the next reaction Some energy is released as heat Some energy is released as heat Most energy is stored in ATP which can deliver it where it is needed Most energy is stored in ATP which can deliver it where it is needed

6 How ATP Works (Yes, again) ATP = Adenosine Triphosphate ATP = Adenosine Triphosphate 3 negative phosphates repel each other 3 negative phosphates repel each other Energy released when bonds break Energy released when bonds break Produces ADP = adenosine diphosphate Produces ADP = adenosine diphosphate

7 Can be reversed back into ATP Can be reversed back into ATP If a 2 nd phosphate is broken off = irreversible If a 2 nd phosphate is broken off = irreversible Water is used in breaking Water is used in breaking H 2 O + ATP = ADP + P + ENERGY H 2 O + ATP = ADP + P + ENERGY

8 Photosynthesis Stages of Photosynthesis Stages of Photosynthesis First 2 are called Light Dependent Reactions First 2 are called Light Dependent Reactions Stage 1: Energy is captured from sunlight Stage 1: Energy is captured from sunlight Stage 2: Light energy is changed to chemical energy Stage 2: Light energy is changed to chemical energy Chemical energy stored temporarily in ATP and a carrier molecule called NADPH Chemical energy stored temporarily in ATP and a carrier molecule called NADPH Stage 3 is called Light Independent or Dark Reactions Stage 3 is called Light Independent or Dark Reactions Energy in ATP and NADPH powers the formation of organic compounds using CO 2 Energy in ATP and NADPH powers the formation of organic compounds using CO 2

9 Where does all of this take place? In the chloroplasts of plant cells and algae and in the cell membrane of certain prokaryotes In the chloroplasts of plant cells and algae and in the cell membrane of certain prokaryotes 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O light > C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O light > C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 Carbon dioxide and water make sugars and oxygen with the help of light energy Carbon dioxide and water make sugars and oxygen with the help of light energy Some sugars form starch and are stored in stems and roots Some sugars form starch and are stored in stems and roots These can be broken down later to make ATP These can be broken down later to make ATP Sugars break down and make proteins, nucleic acids, and others Sugars break down and make proteins, nucleic acids, and others

10 Stage 1 Absorption of Light Energy (Light Dependent) Light is a form of radiation Light is a form of radiation Pigments are light absorbing substances Pigments are light absorbing substances But they only absorb certain wavelengths But they only absorb certain wavelengths Chlorophyll is the primary pigment Chlorophyll is the primary pigment Absorbs mostly blue and red Absorbs mostly blue and red Reflects green and yellow which is why we see them as these colors Reflects green and yellow which is why we see them as these colors

11 A few different kinds Chlorophyll a Chlorophyll a Chlorophyll b Chlorophyll b Carotenoids Carotenoids Yellow and orange reflecting pigments Yellow and orange reflecting pigments Absorb different wavelengths than chlorophyll Absorb different wavelengths than chlorophyll

12 5.3 Cellular Respiration You eat food and the chemical energy is transferred to ATP You eat food and the chemical energy is transferred to ATP This is called Cellular Respiration This is called Cellular Respiration This is much more efficient with Oxygen and this is called Aerobic This is much more efficient with Oxygen and this is called Aerobic When no Oxygen it is called Anaerobic When no Oxygen it is called Anaerobic

13 Cellular Respirations Formula Cellular Respirations Formula How does it compare to the equation for Photosynthesis? How does it compare to the equation for Photosynthesis? C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 enzymes > 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + energy (ATP)

14 Respiration in the Absence of Oxygen 38 ATPs can be made if there is Oxygen 38 ATPs can be made if there is Oxygen Only 2 ATPs when oxygen is absent Only 2 ATPs when oxygen is absent When no oxygen is present we have fermentation When no oxygen is present we have fermentation

15 Lactic Acid Fermentation During strenuous exercise when oxygen has run out, a chemical (pyruvate) in muscles is converted to lactate During strenuous exercise when oxygen has run out, a chemical (pyruvate) in muscles is converted to lactate If this is not removed quickly it can build up in muscles and cause soreness If this is not removed quickly it can build up in muscles and cause soreness

16 Alcoholic Fermentation In other organisms the pyruvate is instead turned into ethanol In other organisms the pyruvate is instead turned into ethanol Used by yeast and fungi to make wine, beer, and bread Used by yeast and fungi to make wine, beer, and bread


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