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Pre World War I Unresolved Tensions

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1 Pre World War I Unresolved Tensions
"Coffin Nails" was a term used by British soldiers to describe cigarettes.

2 I. Competition for Africa
North Africa Fashoda Affair Moroccan Crisis 1905 Algeciras 1911 French Protectorate Fashoda was also bound up in the Egyptian Question – a long running dispute between Britain and France over the legality of the British occupation of Egypt. Since 1882 many French politicians, particularly those of the parti colonial, had come to regret France’s decision not to join with Britain in occupying the country. They hoped to force Britain to leave, and thought that a colonial outpost on the Upper Nile could serve as a base for French gunboats. These in turn were expected to make the British abandon Egypt. Another proposed scheme involved a massive dam, cutting off the Nile’s water supply and forcing the British out. These ideas were highly impractical, but they succeeded in frightening many British officials, who sought to protect Egypt by securing the Nile. Boer War

3 II. Nationalism in Eastern Europe
Russification Pan Slavism Balkan Crisis-Serbia and collapse of the Ottoman Empire

4 Balkans Ottomans, Russia & Austria
Crimean War Russo-Turkish War Bosnian Crisis 1908 Balkan crisis Turkish nationalism-Young Turks - Committee for Union and Progress

5 Militarism Alliances Imperialism Nationalism Significant individuals
The Causes of WWI Militarism Alliances Imperialism Nationalism Significant individuals

6 Militarism Germany was competing with the UK to build battleships.
The British feared an attack on their Empire

7 Militarism Germany was competing with Russia and France to expand their armies Germany 1.3m m France 0.73m 4.0m Russia 0.40m 1.2m

8 Alliances By 1914 all the major powers were linked by a system of alliances. The alliances made it more likely that a war would start. Once started, the alliances made it more likely to spread.

9 Alliances Triple Entente – UK, France & Russia
Triple Alliance – Germany, Austria-Hungry & Italy Triple Entente – UK, France, Russia Triple Alliance – Germany, Austria-Hungry, Italy

10 Imperialism All the great powers were competing for colonies / territory. The British feared Germany in Africa. The Austrians feared Serbia / Russia in the Balkans

11 Nationalism This was an age when all nations wanted to assert their power and independence. In Europe Slavs, aided by Serbia and Russia, wanted to be free of Austrian rule. Serbia’s national flag

12 Significant Individuals
“Germany must have its place in the sun” “The world belongs to the strong.” Kaiser Wilhelm II Built up German army and navy Aggressive foreign policy Determined to make Germany a top nation. Distrusted by other powers

13 Significant Individuals
Count Berchtold Austrian Prime Minister. During the July Crisis, decided on a very tough ultimatum for Serbia

14 Significant Individuals
Bethmann Hollweg German Prime Minister Gave very strong support to Austria during the July crisis while Kaiser was cruising on his yacht Germany issues a “blank check” “The Austrian demands are moderate. Any interference by Britain, France and Russia would be followed by incalculable consequences”

15 The Crisis 28 June 1914 Heir to Austrian throne Franz Ferdinand visits Sarajevo. Capital of Bosnia, recently grabbed by Austria. Hotbed of Slav nationalism Seal of the Black Hand group

16 The Crisis “Black Hand” terrorists attack the Arch Duke
Bomb attempt fails in morning Gavrilo Princip shoots Archduke and wife in the afternoon. Austrians blame Serbia for supporting terrorists.

17 The Crisis Austrians, supported by Germany, send Serbia a tough ultimatum. Serbia agrees to all but two terms of the ultimatum. Russia mobilises her troops to support Serbia Germany demands that Russia stands her armies down. Germany declares war on Russia “Demands must be put to Serbia that would be wholly impossible for them to accept …”

18 Why did Britain get involved?
Britain had Ententes with France and Russia. Only “friendly agreements” but French and Russians given impression Britain would fight. The Schlieffen Plan Sir Edward Grey British Foreign Secretary … “There’s some devilry going on in Berlin” Germany issues a “blank check”

19 The Schlieffen Plan Germany’s military plan to defeat France and Russia. “Knock out blow” aimed at France first. Avoid French defences by invasion of Belgium. Germans thought Britain would not intervene. Entering World War I, Germany knew that it could not wage war for an extended period on two fronts. Therefore, it became necessary for them to attempt to destroy one opponent quickly and decisively allowing them to concentrate all their forces on the other. Only a rapid offensive strategy would fulfill this objective. The plan which they devised was designed by Count Alfred von Schlieffen, Chief of the German General Staff from The Franco-Russian Alliance made it clear that Germany would have to face both French and Russian forces if they were ever to get in a war with either one. Consequently, the Germans believed that they would destroy France before Russia had time to mobilized. Germany estimated that it would take both themselves and France two weeks to mobilized. On the other hand, the Germans believed that it would take Russia six weeks to muster an offensive counter attack against them. The reason the Germans believed this is because of the closer proximity of France and the technological inferiority of Russia. As early as 1899, Schlieffen had developed a plan of attack against France. Schlieffen realized that Germany could not attack straight across their border due to the fortresses which France had built along Alsace and Lorraine after Therefore, at the heart of Schlieffen plan was the idea that Germany would have to attack France by first going through Belgium. Because Belgium had been neutral since 1839, it was assumed to be an easy target which would provide the Germans with quick access into France. Additionally, Schlieffen predicted that France would eventually attack through Belgium, so Germany might as well do so first. At the beginning, Schlieffen planned only to attack through a small portion of Belgium. Eventually, however, he was persuaded by German nationalists to expand his plans to attack through all of Belgium. The first wave of the attack called for a great wheeling movement through Belgium. A wheeling movement would allow the Germans to circle around behind Paris and capture the French armies at the Gura Mountains and the Swiss frontier. Schlieffen was inspired to do this by Hannibal's defeat of the Romans at Cannae. Schlieffen allocated six weeks and 7/8 of Germany's forces to destroy France while 1/8 held the Eastern Front against Russia. Although Schlieffen died in 1912, Germany still used his plan when the war broke in The plan ultimately failed because of unexpected Schlieffen Plan - Belgian resistance which slowed the German offensive enough for the French to rally and defeat them at the Battle of Marne. After the Battle of Marne both sides settled into trench warfare for the duration of the War.

20 Britain’s Reaction 1838- UK had signed a Treaty to protect Belgium.
Britain also scared of Germany controlling Channel ports. Did not want Germany to defeat France and dominate Europe. Britain next? UK issued ultimatum to Germany to withdraw troops from Belgium. War declared August

21 Propaganda USA GERMANY

22 Propoganda Germany Australian

23 Propaganda FRANCE

24 Nationalism – Rupert Brooke
1914 V: The Soldier If I should die, think only this of me: That there's some corner of a foreign field That is for ever England. There shall be In that rich earth a richer dust concealed; A dust whom England bore, shaped, made aware, Gave, once, her flowers to love, her ways to roam, A body of England's, breathing English air, Washed by the rivers, blest by suns of home. And think, this heart, all evil shed away, A pulse in the eternal mind, no less Gives somewhere back the thoughts by England given; Her sights and sounds; dreams happy as her day; And laughter, learnt of friends; and gentleness, In hearts at peace, under an English heaven. 

25 Mid War – Seigfried Sassoon
Absolution The anguish of the earth absolves our eyes  Till beauty shines in all that we can see.  War is our scourge; yet war has made us wise,  And, fighting for our freedom, we are free.  Horror of wounds and anger at the foe, And loss of things desired; all these must pass.  We are the happy legion, for we know  Time’s but a golden wind that shakes the grass.  There was an hour when we were loth to part  From life we longed to share no less than others. Now, having claimed this heritage of heart,  What need we more, my comrades and my brothers? 

26 Total Warfare Soldiers Private Citizens Production Economy


28 Two Fronts (oh yeah and Italy) Western Front
Western Front - The Western Front followed a line between France and Germany through Belgium The French and British fought on one side against the Germans, eventually joined by Americans in 1917. The war bogged down quickly, with both sides digging trenches, and fighting from them until the war ended in 1918.

29 Trench Warfare

30 Technologies The stalemate occurred partly because new technology; machine guns and poison gas; made any offensive attack so lethal that the army had to retreat to trenches. Attacks were followed by counter-attacks that resulted in huge casualties. Each side simply hoped that the other would run out of young men first. That happened when the United States entered the war, and Germany could not match the combined forces on the Western Front.

31 Casualties From Gas - The Numbers
Country Total Casualties Death Austria-Hungary 100,000 3,000 British Empire 188,706 8,109 France 190,000 8,000 Germany 200,000 9,000 Italy 60,000 4,627 Russia 419,340 56,000 USA 72,807 1,462 Others 10,000 1,000

32 Eastern Front Eastern Front - was on the opposite side of Germany from the Western Front. Germany and Austria-Hungary fought Russia along a much more fluid battle line. Central Powers overran Serbia, Albania, and Romania. Russians took the offensive in Prussia, but by the summer of 1915 combined Germany and Austrian forces drove the Russian armies back eastward across Poland, and eventually back into Russia's borders. Russia's armies were poorly led and badly equipped, with the tsar sending men into battle without guns, food, or shoes. Mass desertions and loss of confidence in the tsar led to chaos in Russia, where a communist-inspired group called the Bolsheviks eventually took over the government and assassinated the tsar.

33 Eastern Front Russians took the offensive in Prussia, but by the summer of 1915 combined Germany and Austrian forces drove the Russian armies back eastward across Poland, and eventually back into Russia's borders. Russia's armies were poorly led and badly equipped, with the tsar sending men into battle without guns, food, or shoes. Mass desertions and loss of confidence in the tsar led to chaos in Russia, where a communist-inspired group called the Bolsheviks eventually took over the government and assassinated the tsar. War ends of the Eastern Front with the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, 3 March 1918.

34 United States Joins Sinking of the Lusitania German U-Boats
May 7, 1915 German U-Boats Angered Americans America will join the war April 2, 1917

35 Withdrawal and End Russia withdrew from the war in 1917.
This released German soldiers to transfer to the Western Front. U.S. soldiers supplemented French and British soldiers on the West so that the stalemate was finally broken. The armistice occurring in November 1918.

36 Net Effect The net effect of the war was the slaughter of a huge portion of a generation of young men, primarily from Russia, Germany, Austria-Hungary, England, and France. Arguably, Europe never fully recovered from the loss.

37 Effects What was the effect on areas other than Europe? Gallipoli
India China South America

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