Presentation on theme: "Pre World War I Unresolved Tensions "Coffin Nails" was a term used by British soldiers to describe cigarettes."— Presentation transcript:
Pre World War I Unresolved Tensions "Coffin Nails" was a term used by British soldiers to describe cigarettes.
I. Competition for Africa North Africa Fashoda Affair Moroccan Crisis 1905 Algeciras 1911 French Protectorate Boer War
II. Nationalism in Eastern Europe Russification Pan Slavism Balkan Crisis-Serbia and collapse of the Ottoman Empire
Balkans Ottomans, Russia & Austria 1. Crimean War Russo-Turkish War Bosnian Crisis Balkan crisis Turkish nationalism-Young Turks - Committee for Union and Progress
The Causes of WWI M ilitarism A lliances I mperialism N ationalism S ignificant individuals
Militarism Germany was competing with the UK to build battleships. The British feared an attack on their Empire
Militarism Germany was competing with Russia and France to expand their armies Germany1.3m 5.0m France0.73m4.0m Russia0.40m1.2m
Alliances By 1914 all the major powers were linked by a system of alliances. The alliances made it more likely that a war would start. Once started, the alliances made it more likely to spread.
Alliances Triple Entente – UK, France & Russia Triple Alliance – Germany, Austria- Hungry & Italy
Imperialism All the great powers were competing for colonies / territory. The British feared Germany in Africa. The Austrians feared Serbia / Russia in the Balkans
Nationalism This was an age when all nations wanted to assert their power and independence. In Europe Slavs, aided by Serbia and Russia, wanted to be free of Austrian rule. Serbias national flag
Significant Individuals Kaiser Wilhelm II Built up German army and navy Aggressive foreign policy Determined to make Germany a top nation. Distrusted by other powers Germany must have its place in the sun The world belongs to the strong.
Significant Individuals Count Berchtold Austrian Prime Minister. During the July Crisis, decided on a very tough ultimatum for Serbia
Significant Individuals Bethmann Hollweg German Prime Minister Gave very strong support to Austria during the July crisis while Kaiser was cruising on his yacht Germany issues a blank check The Austrian demands are moderate. Any interference by Britain, France and Russia would be followed by incalculable consequences
The Crisis 28 June 1914 Heir to Austrian throne Franz Ferdinand visits Sarajevo. Capital of Bosnia, recently grabbed by Austria. Hotbed of Slav nationalism Seal of the Black Hand group
The Crisis Black Hand terrorists attack the Arch Duke Bomb attempt fails in morning Gavrilo Princip shoots Archduke and wife in the afternoon. Austrians blame Serbia for supporting terrorists.
The Crisis Austrians, supported by Germany, send Serbia a tough ultimatum. Serbia agrees to all but two terms of the ultimatum. Russia mobilises her troops to support Serbia Germany demands that Russia stands her armies down. Germany declares war on Russia Demands must be put to Serbia that would be wholly impossible for them to accept …
Why did Britain get involved? Britain had Ententes with France and Russia. Only friendly agreements but French and Russians given impression Britain would fight. The Schlieffen Plan Sir Edward Grey British Foreign Secretary … Theres some devilry going on in Berlin
The Schlieffen Plan Germanys military plan to defeat France and Russia. Knock out blow aimed at France first. Avoid French defences by invasion of Belgium. Germans thought Britain would not intervene.
Britains Reaction UK had signed a Treaty to protect Belgium. Britain also scared of Germany controlling Channel ports. Did not want Germany to defeat France and dominate Europe. Britain next? UK issued ultimatum to Germany to withdraw troops from Belgium. War declared August
Propaganda GERMANY USA
Propoganda Australian Germany
Nationalism – Rupert Brooke 1914 V: The Soldier If I should die, think only this of me: That there's some corner of a foreign field That is for ever England. There shall be In that rich earth a richer dust concealed; A dust whom England bore, shaped, made aware, Gave, once, her flowers to love, her ways to roam, A body of England's, breathing English air, Washed by the rivers, blest by suns of home. And think, this heart, all evil shed away, A pulse in the eternal mind, no less Gives somewhere back the thoughts by England given; Her sights and sounds; dreams happy as her day; And laughter, learnt of friends; and gentleness, In hearts at peace, under an English heaven.
Mid War – Seigfried Sassoon Absolution The anguish of the earth absolves our eyes Till beauty shines in all that we can see. War is our scourge; yet war has made us wise, And, fighting for our freedom, we are free. Horror of wounds and anger at the foe, And loss of things desired; all these must pass. We are the happy legion, for we know Times but a golden wind that shakes the grass. There was an hour when we were loth to part From life we longed to share no less than others. Now, having claimed this heritage of heart, What need we more, my comrades and my brothers?
Total Warfare Soldiers Private Citizens Production Economy
Two Fronts (oh yeah and Italy) Western Front Western Front - The Western Front followed a line between France and Germany through Belgium The French and British fought on one side against the Germans, eventually joined by Americans in The war bogged down quickly, with both sides digging trenches, and fighting from them until the war ended in 1918.
Technologies The stalemate occurred partly because new technology; machine guns and poison gas; made any offensive attack so lethal that the army had to retreat to trenches. Attacks were followed by counter-attacks that resulted in huge casualties. Each side simply hoped that the other would run out of young men first. That happened when the United States entered the war, and Germany could not match the combined forces on the Western Front.
Casualties From Gas - The Numbers CountryTotal Casualties Death Austria-Hungary100,0003,000 British Empire188,7068,109 France190,0008,000 Germany200,0009,000 Italy60,0004,627 Russia419,34056,000 USA72,8071,462 Others10,0001,000
Eastern Front Eastern Front - was on the opposite side of Germany from the Western Front. Germany and Austria-Hungary fought Russia along a much more fluid battle line. Central Powers overran Serbia, Albania, and Romania. Russians took the offensive in Prussia, but by the summer of 1915 combined Germany and Austrian forces drove the Russian armies back eastward across Poland, and eventually back into Russia's borders. Russia's armies were poorly led and badly equipped, with the tsar sending men into battle without guns, food, or shoes. Mass desertions and loss of confidence in the tsar led to chaos in Russia, where a communist-inspired group called the Bolsheviks eventually took over the government and assassinated the tsar.
Eastern Front Russians took the offensive in Prussia, but by the summer of 1915 combined Germany and Austrian forces drove the Russian armies back eastward across Poland, and eventually back into Russia's borders. Russia's armies were poorly led and badly equipped, with the tsar sending men into battle without guns, food, or shoes. Mass desertions and loss of confidence in the tsar led to chaos in Russia, where a communist-inspired group called the Bolsheviks eventually took over the government and assassinated the tsar. War ends of the Eastern Front with the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, 3 March 1918.
United States Joins Sinking of the Lusitania May 7, 1915 German U-Boats Angered Americans America will join the war April 2, 1917
Withdrawal and End Russia withdrew from the war in This released German soldiers to transfer to the Western Front. U.S. soldiers supplemented French and British soldiers on the West so that the stalemate was finally broken. The armistice occurring in November 1918.
Net Effect The net effect of the war was the slaughter of a huge portion of a generation of young men, primarily from Russia, Germany, Austria-Hungary, England, and France. Arguably, Europe never fully recovered from the loss.
Effects What was the effect on areas other than Europe? Gallipoli India China South America