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6.1 Running Water Oceans – 97 % Glaciers/ice – 2 % Freshwater - < 1 % Water cycle = the continuous circulation of earths water supply It is powered by.

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Presentation on theme: "6.1 Running Water Oceans – 97 % Glaciers/ice – 2 % Freshwater - < 1 % Water cycle = the continuous circulation of earths water supply It is powered by."— Presentation transcript:

1 6.1 Running Water Oceans – 97 % Glaciers/ice – 2 % Freshwater - < 1 % Water cycle = the continuous circulation of earths water supply It is powered by the sun

2 Evaporation = liquid to gas Condensation = gas to liquid (forms clouds) Precipitation = water (s,l ) returns to earth Infiltration = water that soaks into ground Runoff = water that flows across the ground Transpiration = water that plants release into the atmosphere (gas to liquid)

3 Earths water cycle is balanced Balanced = earths annual precipitation = the amount that evaporates Local imbalances do exist like droughts and floods

4 Stream Flow Velocity is the distance that water travels in a period of time. (some slow some fast) Highest velocities in the center of channel Velocity fastest on the outside bank/bend when a steam bends/curves The ability of a stream to erode & transport materials depends largely on its velocity

5 5 Stream Velocity Factors 1. Gradient = slope (how steep or flat) 2. Shape = crooked vs straight 3. Size = wide vs narrow & deep vs shallow 4. Roughness = smooth vs rough 5. Discharge = the volume of water flowing past a certain point per unit of time (m 3 /s)

6 Stream Profile Changes Profile - a cross-sectional stream view Profile - a cross-sectional stream view Gradient and roughness decrease as you go downstream Gradient and roughness decrease as you go downstream Discharge, velocity, depth, and width increases as you move downstream Discharge, velocity, depth, and width increases as you move downstream The ability of a stream to erode increases as the discharge increases. The ability of a stream to erode increases as the discharge increases.

7 Stream Terms Tributary – anything that empties into another stream Tributary – anything that empties into another stream Base level – the lowest point to which a stream can erode its channel Base level – the lowest point to which a stream can erode its channel Meander – bends/curves in a river/stream Meander – bends/curves in a river/stream Oxbow lake – a meander that gets cut off from the main stream and form a small lake. Oxbow lake – a meander that gets cut off from the main stream and form a small lake.

8 6.2 Stream Erosion Streams erode their channels by 3 main processes…abrasion, grinding, and by dissolving particles. Streams erode their channels by 3 main processes…abrasion, grinding, and by dissolving particles. Streams carry their materials (loads) in 3 ways Streams carry their materials (loads) in 3 ways Dissolved load – dissolved particles Dissolved load – dissolved particles Suspended load - carried by fast water Suspended load - carried by fast water Bed load – along the bottom…saltation Bed load – along the bottom…saltation

9 The ability of stream to carry a load is dependent upon 2 factors: The ability of stream to carry a load is dependent upon 2 factors: Competence - the largest particles the stream is transporting Competence - the largest particles the stream is transporting Capacity – the maximum load it can carry Capacity – the maximum load it can carry Steams generally erode V shaped valleys & channels in three ways Steams generally erode V shaped valleys & channels in three ways Abrasion Abrasion Grinding Grinding Dissolving soluble materials Dissolving soluble materials

10 Stream Deposition As the stream slows down material/alluvium begins to settle out As the stream slows down material/alluvium begins to settle out Larger materials settle out first Larger materials settle out first Delta – a triangular accumulation of sediment formed where a stream enters a lake/ocean Delta – a triangular accumulation of sediment formed where a stream enters a lake/ocean Levee – accumulation of sediment along the river banks Levee – accumulation of sediment along the river banks Rivers carve Rivers carve

11 3 Stages of Stream Development 1 Young – fast, straight, narrow, rapids 2 Mature – slower, meanders, wider 3 Old – slowest, meanders/oxbows, widest

12 Flooding Flood plain – flat areas along rivers that occasionally flood Flood plain – flat areas along rivers that occasionally flood Flood contribution factors: Flood contribution factors: Paving Paving Excess precipitation Excess precipitation Methods of control Methods of control Dams and levees Dams and levees Limiting development Limiting development

13 Drainage basin - the land area that contributes water to a stream Drainage basin - the land area that contributes water to a stream Divide – imaginary line that separates one drainage basin of one stream from another Divide – imaginary line that separates one drainage basin of one stream from another Drainage patterns Drainage patterns Dendritic Dendritic Radial Radial Braided Braided Trellis/rectangular Trellis/rectangular

14 6.3 Groundwater Zone of saturation – area below ground where all the pore spaces are completely filled with water Zone of saturation – area below ground where all the pore spaces are completely filled with water Zone of aeration – all the pore spaces are not completely filled with water Zone of aeration – all the pore spaces are not completely filled with water Water table – the line that divides the two Water table – the line that divides the two

15 Groundwater Porosity – the percentage of the total volume of rock (or sediment) that consists of pore spaces Porosity – the percentage of the total volume of rock (or sediment) that consists of pore spaces Permeability – how well water moves through the rock/sediment Permeability – how well water moves through the rock/sediment Well rounded and well sorted grains = high porosity Well rounded and well sorted grains = high porosity Aquifer – rock layers or sediment that allow groundwater to flow freely (sandstone) Aquifer – rock layers or sediment that allow groundwater to flow freely (sandstone) Aquitard – does not allow groundwater freely to flow freely (shale) Aquitard – does not allow groundwater freely to flow freely (shale)

16 Springs – form whenever the water table intersects the surface of the ground Springs – form whenever the water table intersects the surface of the ground Hot springs – water is heated from magma just below the surface Hot springs – water is heated from magma just below the surface Geysers – intermittent hot spring/fountain that periodically erupts (Old Faithful) Geysers – intermittent hot spring/fountain that periodically erupts (Old Faithful) Wells – a hole bored into the zone of saturation Wells – a hole bored into the zone of saturation A pump is needed A pump is needed Cone of depression Cone of depression Artesian wells – groundwater rises on its own under pressure and no pump is needed Artesian wells – groundwater rises on its own under pressure and no pump is needed

17 Caverns A naturally formed underground chamber A naturally formed underground chamber Usually forms in limestone from carbonic acid dissolving the rock Usually forms in limestone from carbonic acid dissolving the rock Travertine – Calcium carbonate deposits Travertine – Calcium carbonate deposits Stalactites, stalagmites, soda straws, curtains/ribbons, flowstone, etc Stalactites, stalagmites, soda straws, curtains/ribbons, flowstone, etc Karst topography – limestone areas with many caves and sinkholes (collapsed caves) Karst topography – limestone areas with many caves and sinkholes (collapsed caves)


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