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Basins: land area that contributes water to a river system Divide: separates different drainage basins Ex. Drainage basin of Mississippi River 9: Running.

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Presentation on theme: "Basins: land area that contributes water to a river system Divide: separates different drainage basins Ex. Drainage basin of Mississippi River 9: Running."— Presentation transcript:

1 Basins: land area that contributes water to a river system Divide: separates different drainage basins Ex. Drainage basin of Mississippi River 9: Running Water

2 Factors that determine velocity: Gradient (slope); channel characteristics Shape, size, roughness Discharge: water vol. in stream [ft 3 /sec] Profile: cross-sectional view used for study Profile usually a smooth, concave up curve Gradient decreases from head to mouth Factors that increase downstream: Velocity, discharge, channel size Factors that decrease downstream: Gradient, channel roughness Stream Flow

3 Load: material transported by a stream Types: dissolved load (in solution), suspended load Bed load: slides or rolls on bottom Load related to streams competence and capacity Competence : max particle size transported Capacity: max load stream can carry Capacity is related to discharge Deposition caused by: Decrease in velocity, reducing competence Sediment drops out as water flow slows. Sediments: alluvium, well-sorted deposits Base level: lowest point eroded by stream Sea level: ultimate base level Adjustment in base level due to changing conditions Change causes readjustment of stream Increases deposition and erosion Erosion Figure 5.14: Resistant rock layer acts as temporary base level.

4 Features produced by deposition: Deltas: exist in oceans or lakes Natural levees : form parallel to stream channel Back swamps: area behind a levee Yazoo Tributary: runs parallel to mainstream Yazoo does not directly join main stream Features produced by deposition: Deltas: exist in oceans or lakes Natural levees : form parallel to stream channel Back swamps: area behind a levee Yazoo Tributary: runs parallel to mainstream Yazoo does not directly join main stream Depositional Features Meander loop in Colorado River Figure: Erosion and deposition along a meandering stream Figure: Continued erosion and deposition widens the valley Figure: Characteristic meandering on flood plain in wide-stream valley; also cutoffs, oxbow lakes can be included

5 Stream networks form patterns Types: Dendritic, radial Rectangular, trellis Floods are a common hazard Caused by weather Caused by stream interference Engineering efforts: Artificial levees, flood-control dams channelization Stream networks form patterns Types: Dendritic, radial Rectangular, trellis Floods are a common hazard Caused by weather Caused by stream interference Engineering efforts: Artificial levees, flood-control dams channelization Drainage Patterns and Floods Flood Plains, (2:38)


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