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Book I, Chapter 1 The Atmosphere Section 1, pages 4-9 Characteristics of the Atmosphere.

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Presentation on theme: "Book I, Chapter 1 The Atmosphere Section 1, pages 4-9 Characteristics of the Atmosphere."— Presentation transcript:

1 Book I, Chapter 1 The Atmosphere Section 1, pages 4-9 Characteristics of the Atmosphere

2 Atmosphere – A mixture of gases that surrounds the Earth. Composition of the Atmosphere: Gases: Gases: 78% Nitrogen 21% Oxygen 1% Argon, CO 2, 1% Argon, CO 2, Water Vapor & Water Vapor & other Gases other Gases Small amts. of Solids Small amts. of Solids & Liquids (ex. dust) & Liquids (ex. dust)

3 Air Pressure – A measure of the force with which the molecules push on a surface. What causes air pressure? Air pressure is caused as gravity pulls molecules in the atmosphere toward the Earth.

4 Example of Air Pressure Popping of your ears. As an airplane goes up and down at different elevations the air pressure outside your ears changes, but the pressure inside your ears stays the same. Popping of your ears. As an airplane goes up and down at different elevations the air pressure outside your ears changes, but the pressure inside your ears stays the same.

5 Altitude – The height of an object above the Earths surface. Gravity pulls the molecules toward the Earths surface. Gravity pulls the molecules toward the Earths surface. The farther away from the Earths surface, the pressure decreases. The farther away from the Earths surface, the pressure decreases. Altitude = Pressure Altitude = Pressure Up Down Up Down

6 Layers of the Atmosphere – 4 layers based on temperature. 1. Troposphere (tropo means change) Lowest layer of atmosphere (closest to Earth) Lowest layer of atmosphere (closest to Earth) Weather take place here Weather take place here Begins at surface of Earth & extends out 4-10 miles Begins at surface of Earth & extends out 4-10 miles Layer where we live also known as lower atmosphere Layer where we live also known as lower atmosphere Temperature decreases with height Temperature decreases with height

7 2. Stratosphere (strato means layer) Above the troposphere Above the troposphere Air very thin w/ little moisture Air very thin w/ little moisture Extends 30-35 miles above Earths surface Extends 30-35 miles above Earths surface Temperature rises w/ increasing altitude, but still Temperature rises w/ increasing altitude, but still well below freezing well below freezing Ozone layer located here Ozone layer located here Ozone – made of 3 oxygen atoms & absorbs solar energy in form of UV rays in the ozone layer. This warms the air & protects life on the Earths surface. Ozone – made of 3 oxygen atoms & absorbs solar energy in form of UV rays in the ozone layer. This warms the air & protects life on the Earths surface.

8 3. Mesosphere – (meso means middle) Above the stratosphere Above the stratosphere About 35-50 miles above surface of the Earth About 35-50 miles above surface of the Earth Coldest layer w/ temps as low as -93 º C Coldest layer w/ temps as low as -93 º C Air is thin and molecules are very far apart Air is thin and molecules are very far apart Strong wind storms Strong wind storms 4. Thermosphere – (thermo means heat) The uppermost layer The uppermost layer From 50-400 miles above surface of the Earth From 50-400 miles above surface of the Earth Temp increases w/ height as high as 1,700 º C Temp increases w/ height as high as 1,700 º C Doesnt feel hot b/c air particles are too far apart for energy to be transferred Doesnt feel hot b/c air particles are too far apart for energy to be transferred

9 Air Temperature & Altitude Air temperatures change as altitude increases. Air temperatures change as altitude increases. Temperature changes mainly from the way solar energy is absorbed as it moves downward through the atmosphere. Temperature changes mainly from the way solar energy is absorbed as it moves downward through the atmosphere. Some gases in the atmosphere absorb solar energy more than others, and warm the atmosphere. Some gases in the atmosphere absorb solar energy more than others, and warm the atmosphere.

10 What does air pressure, temperature, and layers of the atmosphere have to do with weather? 1. Areas of high pressure usually have clear skies, and areas of low pressure usually have clouds. 2. Our weather takes place in the lower layer of the atmosphere called the troposphere. 3. The movement of air tends to blow from high pressure to low pressure areas. 4. Changes in temperature lead to changes in air pressure, bringing different kinds of weather.

11 Made by Mrs. Villone Austintown Middle School Credits given to Holt, Rhinehart and Winston Science Textbook Company


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