Presentation on theme: "Chemistry Matter – is anything that has mass and takes up space. MATTER is never created or destroyed, it only changes form."— Presentation transcript:
Matter – is anything that has mass and takes up space. MATTER is never created or destroyed, it only changes form.
Atoms – The basic building blocks of all the substances in the universe. All things are made up of atoms. anotechnology1.htm
Elements – Are made of one kind of atom grouped together and cannot be broken down into simpler substances. 1.Like atoms make up elements elements make up all the known substances on earth!!!
Atoms contain one or more PROTONS, NEUTRONS, and ELECTRONS
Protons and neutrons make up the nucleus of an atom. Electrons float around the nucleus of an atom. nucleus Electrons
Protons – Particles that have a positive electric charge. Neutrons – have no electric charge. Electrons – Particles with a negative charge located outside of the nucleus.
The nucleus of the atom is positively charged (+). The negatively (-) charged electrons surround the nucleus to balance the charge of the atom to neutral. The number of protons equals the number of electrons. The atomic number = protons/electrons in atoms. Atomic mass= neutrons +protons.
Atomic number – the number of protons in an atom. Found above the element symbol. Mass number – is equal to the number of protons plus the number of neutrons. The number of neutrons is determined by subtracting the atomic number from the mass number. Isotopes – atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons.
The number in the right corner of each element represents the amount of protons that element has……thus the amount of electrons.
Groups – are the numbers at the top of the periodic table that represent the number of electrons in the outermost shell (energy level). Periods – the number to the left of the periodic table that represents the number of shells an element will have.
Group number Period number
Draw the following diagrams of elements with the following labels: Carbon Nitrogen Helium Draw the protons, neutrons, and electrons along with correct # of shells and electrons.
1.Electrons circle around the nucleus in shells or energy levels. 2.As an element looses an electron it looses energy and as an element gains electrons it gains energy. 3.Each circle or shell is limited to how many electrons it can hold.
Valence electrons – electrons in the outermost energy level of an atom. The valence shell can have 1 to 8 electrons in it depending on its place on the periodic table. Elements to the left have 1 and elements to the right have 8.
Electrons in valance shells that are not full will either gain electrons to become full or give up electrons allowing its outer shell to be lowered to its next lowest level (which is full).
Bell Fun Draw the following diagram of the element Li with the following labels: protons, electrons, neutrons, shells.
Bean lab 1. If protons and electrons do not match, then it is an ion. 2. If protons and neutrons do not match the atomic mass (number below element symbol) of element then it an isotope. 3. If protons and electrons match, neutrons and protons = atomic mass # then the element is stable