Presentation on theme: "The following slides are based on information gained from the two below-listed sources. Some words, phrases, and complete sentences have been borrowed."— Presentation transcript:
The following slides are based on information gained from the two below-listed sources. Some words, phrases, and complete sentences have been borrowed from the sources in order to outline the steps teachers can take to assure that students are receiving the best literacy instruction that can be offered. The reports were read, comprehended, perceived, and summarized into this PowerPoint by Amie Croft. Biancarosa, G., and Snow, C.E (2002). Reading NextA Vision for Action and Research in Middle and High School Literacy: A Report to Carnegie Corporation of New York. Washington, DC: Alliance for Excellent Education Graham,S., and Perin, D. (2007). Writing Next: Effective Strategies to Improve Writing of Adolescents in Middle and High SchoolsA Report to Carnegie Corporation of New York. Washington, DC: Alliance for Excellent Education Reading Next Writing Next Effective strategies to improve the literacy skills of Americas Adolescents.
Reading Next : A Vision for Action and Research in Middle and High School Literacy A Report to Carnegie Corporation of New York 2004 A Literacy Crisis Every school day, more than 3,000 students drop out of high school. The most commonly cited reason-- students do not have the literacy skills to keep up. There are 8 million struggling readers in grades 4-12 across our nation.
The Issue: It is a requirement for the youth of today to acquire literacy skills to succeed in school and in life. It is an ever changing world in which the average literacy demands for an occupation are increasing. We must focus on preparing students to meet the demands they may face in their future, we should not simply focus on graduation. We must strengthen the literacy skills of the individual in order for them to strengthen our nation. The Recommendations: Fifteen key elements of effective adolescent literacy programs were determined by the Reading Next report. The fifteen key elements are divided into two areas of improvement, instructional and infrastructure. It is important to realize that the elements are most effective when used in combination. Utilizing the elements can assure that students are receiving the best literacy instruction we can offer.
1. Direct, Explicit Comprehension Instruction Struggling adolescent readers can generally read the word, but they have difficulty with comprehension. Programs must address reading comprehension. The best intervention would tap into more than one comprehension instructional approach. Possible instructional approaches include: * comprehension strategies * teacher modeling * scaffolding instructions * apprenticeship models * comprehension monitoring and metacognition instruction Instructional Improvements: Direct, explicit comprehension instruction: two examples Reciprocal Teaching- Scaffold approach using four critical strategies: questioning, clarifying, summarizing, predicting Reading Apprenticeship- Teacher as the content-area expert and students as apprentices. Teacher plans along four dimensions: social, personal, cognitive, knowledge-building
2. Effective Instructional Principles Embedded in Content Part One: Part One: The language arts teacher expands their instruction to include the use of content-area texts that facilitates comprehension and learning from texts. Part Two: Part Two: The content-area teacher emphasizes the reading and writing practices specific to their subject, encouraging students to read and write like historians, scientists, mathematicians, and other subject-area experts. Effective instructional principles embedded in content: an example Strategic Instruction Model (SIM)- Provides an array of strategies to enhance content teaching. Four of the reading strategies included are word identification, visual imagery, self-questioning, and paraphrasing.
3. Motivation and Self-Directed Learning Students need to develop the ability to self-regulate in order to become more successful academically and to be able to employ their skills long after graduation. By allowing students choices, teachers can engage, motivate, and encourage students. Possible instructional approaches include: Provide students opportunities to select the materials they read and topics they research. To incorporate this strategy a teacher may want to incorporate some independent reading time into the schedule. Provide students with additional choices, such as research and writing topics. Give choices and the instructional support needed for students to succeed. Promote relevancy in what students read and learn. Know your students lives to connect the relevancy and why.
4. Text-Based Collaborative Learning Students working in small groups interact with each other around a text. Similar to a book club or literature circle, the group collaborates to decipher the meaning and share thoughts and ideas regarding the text or topic. Group member roles and task scaffolding would need to be created, discussed, and modeled for successful implementation. Text-based collaborative learning: an example Questioning the Author- Providing open-ended questions for groups to question the authors purpose and choices for a text. 5. Strategic Tutoring Intense, individualized instruction to teach students how to learn so they can complete a similar task independently in the future. Emphasis is on differentiated instruction and tutorial help needed for students to acquire critical curriculum knowledge in reading, writing, and content instruction. 6. Diverse Texts Providing students with a variety of texts to read based on reading level and interest while representing a wide range of topics. It is also important to have a wide variety of cultural, linguistic, and demographic selections.
7. Intensive Writing Writing instruction also improves reading comprehension and even some of the best readers do not write well. Attention should be spent on increasing the amount of quality writing instruction students receive and increasing the amount of writing students do. 8. A Technology Component Technology should be used as both an instructional tool and an instructional topic. A tool to provide needed support for struggling readers with the use of computer programs. As a topic, technology is increasing becoming central to our society. New reading and writing demands are required to keep up with the changing technological trends. 9. Ongoing Formative Assessment of Students Data collection that occurs daily, using informal assessment of student strengths and needs to inform instruction, ensuring that students are reaching mastery targets. Data should be catalogued for easy inspection of student progress individually and by class.
10. Extended Time for Literacy Including approximately two to four hours of literacy-connected learning daily in which time is text centered and informed by instructional principles designed to convey content and also to practice and improve literacy skills. Infrastructural Improvements: 11. Professional Development Long-term, ongoing development to promote lasting, positive changes in teacher knowledge and practice. Using a team-oriented approach to improve instruction for developing adolescent literacy. 12. Ongoing Summative Assessment of Students and the Programs Design is largely intended for an administrative, district, state, and federal audience. Assessment results can possibly inform instruction but are largely meeting the data needs for program accountability, research, and funding.
13. Teacher Teams Interdisciplinary teacher teams meet together regularly to discuss students they have in common and to align instruction. Allows for a consistent, comprehensive, and coordinated literacy program. 14. Leadership Someone leading the charge to coordinate, organize, and add enthusiasm toward developing and maintaining a school-wide informed vision of literacy instruction. Principal and teachers assume leadership roles in curricular and instructional reform to teach reading and writing to the full array of students present in schools. 15. A Comprehensive & Coordinated Literacy Program Interdisciplinary teams creating consistent instruction by reinforcing reading and writing skills. Collaborating across content-areas, grade levels, and out-of-school organizations to coordinate, create, implement, and reinforce an effective literacy program.
What is the Optimal Mix? Various research has been conducted to discover the fifteen key elements, but there is more to accomplish in order to assure that our students are receiving the best literacy instruction. The optimal mix of the elements has not been determined. Ongoing formal and summative assessment should determine whether certain combinations of the elements are more or less effective for certain populations of struggling readers.
Writing Next: Effective Strategies to Improve Writing of Adolescents in Middle and High Schools A Report to Carnegie Corporation of New York 2007 Cause for Alarm 70% of students in grades 4-12 are low-achieving writers Nearly one-third of high school graduates are not ready for college-level English composition courses U.S. graduates literacy skills are lower than those of graduates in most industrialized nations, comparable only to the skills of graduates in Chile, Poland, Portugal, and Slovenia
The Issue: Writing proficiency is a critical element in attaining a job in a majority of occupations. Much study and thought has been placed into the improvement of reading in respect to improving literacy skills. Along with reading comprehension, writing skill is a predictor of academic success and a basic requirement for participation in civic life and in the global economy. Reading and writing are vital aspects of literacy, but they require their own dedicated instruction. What improves reading does not always improve writing. With the explosion of electronic and wireless communication in everyday life brings writing skills into play as never before. We must strengthen the written literacy skills of American youth. Writing well is not just an option for young peopleit is a necessity.
The Recommendations: If students are to make knowledge their own, they must struggle with the details, wrestle with the facts, and rework raw information and dimly understood concepts into language they can communicate to someone else. In short, if students are to learn, they must write. Eleven key elements of effective adolescent writing instruction were determined by the Writing Next report. It is important to realize that the elements are most effective when interlinked. Although these eleven elements are not meant to constitute a curriculum, utilizing the elements in conjunction with a writing curriculum can assure that students are receiving the best literacy instruction we can offer. The intended outcome of the 11 key elements of effective adolescent writing instruction is the improvement of writing quality. The instructional elements are ordered according to their average effect. Elements with larger effect sizes are presented before those with smaller effect sizes.
1. Writing Strategies (Effect Size = 0.82) Explicitly and systematically teaching students the steps necessary for planning, revising, and/or editing. The ultimate goal is to teach students to use these strategies independently. The effect size increases when used in teaching lower-ability writers, but writing strategy instruction has been found to be a powerful technique for adolescents in general. Writing Strategies: an example Self-Regulated Strategy Development (SRSD)- Characterized by explicit teaching, individualized instruction, and criterion-based learning. Strategy instruction takes place in six stages: Develop Background Knowledge, Describe It, Model It, Memorize It, Support It, and Independent Use. Students are also taught self-regulating skills to help them manage writing strategies, the writing process, and their behavior. Mnemonics are introduced to help students remember strategies to increase writing performance. 2. Summarization (Effect Size = 0.82) Explicitly and systematically teachings students how to summarize. Summarization has a consistent, strong, positive effect on students ability to write good summaries.
3. Collaborative Writing (Effect Size = 0.75) Instructional arrangements in which students work together to plan, draft, revise, and edit their compositions. Collaborative arrangements in which students help one another with one or more aspects of their writing has a strong impact on writing quality when compared to students working independently. Collaborative Writing: an example Helper/Writer- A higher achieving student is assigned to be Helper and a lower achieving student is assigned to be the writer. The Helper assists the Writer in completing the writing steps needed to produce a written work. The task is completed as a partnership. The teachers role is to monitor, prompt, and praise the students, and address their concerns. 4. Specific Product Goals (Effect Size = 0.70) Assigning specific, reachable goals for writing that students are able to complete. Provide students with specific understanding for the purpose of the assignment as well as the characteristics of the final product. Setting Specific Product Goals: an example Making expectations structured and clear- Providing students with objectives to focus on particular aspects of their writing. In addition to the general goal, providing explicit, specific subgoals.
5. Word Processing (Effect Size = 0.55) Using technological devices, such as word processors or computers, along with instructional guidance to compose a written work. The capabilities of modern software allow the writer many opportunities (ability to add, delete, and move text; spelling checks). Word processing has a consistent, positive impact on writing ability when compared with composition by hand. 6. Sentence Combining (Effect Size = 0.50) Teaching students to combine two or more basic sentences to create one single sentence. Creating a single sentence from two or more basic sentences is a more complex and sophisticated exercise that has a moderate impact on improving the quality of writing of adolescents. Sentence Combining: an example Scaffolding the complexity of sentence combining- Students at higher and lower writing levels are paired to receive six lessons that teach a series of more sophisticated tasks for sentence combinations. The pair combine sentences using a variety of approaches: Using the connectors and, but, and because; embedding an adjective or adverb from one sentence into another; embedding an adverbial and adjectival clause from one sentence into another; and making multiple embeddings involving adjectives, adverbs, adverbial clauses, and adjectival clauses.
7. Pre-writing (Effect Size = 0.32) Teaching students strategies to help them generate or organize ideas before they begin to write their first draft. Engaging students in pre-writing activities before they write their composition improves the quality of their writing, but it has a small to moderate impact. 8. Inquiry Activities (Effect Size = 0.32) Students analyze immediate, concrete data to generate ideas for a particular writing. Effective inquiry activities have a clearly specified goal, analysis of concrete and immediate data (example: observe someone or something in their environment), use of specific strategies to conduct the analysis, and apply what is learned. Inquiry activities: an example Examine, infer, and write- Students use their five senses to examine and infer the qualities of specific objects for their composition. The responses that are elicited are used to develop descriptions and perceptions to give students connection to and depth within their written work.
9. Process Writing Approach (Effect Size = 0.32) Interweaves a number of writing instructional activities in a workshop environment that stresses extended writing opportunities, writing for real audiences, personalized instruction and goals, and cycles of planning, translating, and reviewing. This element is most effective when a teacher is trained in the process writing approach. 10. Study of Models (Effect Size = 0.25) Encourage students to analyze two excellent models for each type of writing (example: persuasive essay) that is the focus of instruction. After students analyze the models, they emulate the critical elements, patterns and forms embodied in the models in their own writing. 11. Writing for Content Area Learning (Effect Size = 0.25) Students are given writing tasks that encourage learning of content material. The task is a writing-to-learn approach and does not provide explicit instruction in writing skills. The writing-to-learn approach has been found to be effective across all content areas and amongst grades 4-12.
A Note About Grammar Instruction: Studies have found that teaching students to focus on the function and practical application of grammar within the context of writing (versus teaching grammar as an independent activity in which instruction involves explicit and systematic teaching of parts of speech and structure of sentences) produced strong and positive effects on student writing. Implementing the Elements Through writing, students learn to write and write to learn. Ensuring that students are receiving the best written literacy instruction that we can offer has important implications far beyond the classroom. It can enable students to attain career positions open only to the literary able. Although the eleven elements do not constitute a curriculum themselves, implementing them based on the needs of students holds promise for improving writing ability. The elements have been found to have clear results. As teachers model and guide students through the various elements and strategies, students make the necessary process links that operate simultaneously to produce good writing.
Biancarosa, G., and Snow, C.E (2002). Reading NextA Vision for Action and Research in Middle and High School Literacy: A Report to Carnegie Corporation of New York. Washington, DC: Alliance for Excellent Education Graham,S., and Perin, D. (2007). Writing Next: Effective Strategies to Improve Writing of Adolescents in Middle and High SchoolsA Report to Carnegie Corporation of New York. Washington, DC: Alliance for Excellent Education Information and Documentation Sources: Picture Sources: image search girl reading, slide #1 child writing, slide #1 child struggling at school, slide #2 girl raising hand, slide #5 group of students, slide #6 people searching page, slide #11 girl struggling, slide #12 computer, slide #13 Works Cited