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1 Properties of matter 2 General Properties of Matter u Matter is anything that has mass and volume u Everything is made of matter.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Properties of matter 2 General Properties of Matter u Matter is anything that has mass and volume u Everything is made of matter."— Presentation transcript:


2 1 Properties of matter

3 2 General Properties of Matter u Matter is anything that has mass and volume u Everything is made of matter

4 3 What are properties? u Characteristics used to describe an object u Ex: color, odor, shape, size, texture,hardness u video video

5 4 General Properties of matter u Mass, weight, volume, and density u Properties are used to identify a substance

6 5 What is mass? u Mass is the amount of matter in an object u Mass is constant u Mass is also the measure of inertia

7 6 What is inertia? u Inertia is the resistance of an object to changes in its motion u The more mass the greater the inertia

8 7 Questions u How is mass related to inertia? u Why are properties of an object important?

9 8 Force and inertia u When an object is at rest, a force is needed to overcome the inertia to make it move and to stop the objects motion

10 9 Question u Which object has more inertia, an empty wagon or one loaded with rocks? Why?

11 10 Question u What does a seatbelt do for a passenger when a car stops suddenly?

12 11 Question u Why would the passenger move forward without the restraining force of the belt?

13 12 Question u What would stop a passenger if the seatbelt were not in place?

14 13 Question u What other safety features are present in a car in response to a persons inertia in a moving vehicle?

15 14 Weight u The measure of the force of gravity on the mass of an object u Weight changes with gravity u The metric unit for weight is a Newton (N)

16 15 Weight formula u 1 kg = 2.2 pounds u Weight is mass times gravity (9.8 m/s 2 ) u W= m x g u What is your mass? u What is your weight in Newtons?

17 16 What is gravity? u The force of attraction between objects is gravity u All objects exert a gravitational force on each other

18 17 Question u Why cant you feel the attraction between you and other objects the same way you are pulled toward Earth?

19 18 Gravitational pull u The greater the mass of an object the greater the gravitational force

20 19 Question u Why cant we feel the pull of gravity from Jupiter even though it is so massive?

21 20 What affects gravity? u The pull of gravity weakens as the distance between objects increases u gravity depends on mass and distance

22 21 Gravity u The further an object is from the center of the earth, the less the object will weigh

23 22 Question u Would you weigh less, more, or the same on top of Mount Everest?

24 23 Question u The moon is smaller than the earth. How would your weight be different on the moon?

25 24 Questions u What are three properties of matter related to mass?

26 25 Question u What is density and how is it calculated?

27 26 Density u The density of water is 1.0 g/ml u Objects with densities greater than 1.0 will sink in water

28 27 Density u Objects with densities less than 1.0 g/ml will float on water

29 28 Ice u Ice floats therefore it is less dense than water u Ice mostly remains underwater with only a portion of it being exposed

30 29 Astronomy fact! u The planet Saturn has a density of less than 1.0 g/ml. If there was an ocean big enough to hold it, it would float!

31 30 Calculations u If 96.5 grams of gold has a volume of 5 cubic centimeters, what is the density of gold?

32 31 Calculation u If 96.5 g of aluminum has a volume of 35 cm 3, what is the density of aluminum?

33 32 Calculation u If the density of a diamond is 3.5 g/cm 3, what would be the mass of a diamond whose volume is 0.5 cm 3 ?

34 33 What is specific gravity? u A comparison of the density of a substance and the density of water is specific gravity

35 34 Questions u How is density different from specific gravity?

36 35 What is a physical property? u Physical properties are those that can be observed without changing the identity of the substance

37 36 Phases of matter (video) (video) u Four phases of matter: solid, liquid, gas, and plasma u solids have a definite shape and volume

38 37 Solid particle arrangement u Solids are tightly packed and the particles vibrate u Two types of solids are crystalline and amorphous

39 38 Types of solids u Crystalline solids are arranged in repeating patterns called crystals (salt, sugar) u Amorphous solids can lose their shape

40 39 Examples of amorphous solids u Tar, candle wax, glass u Shape changes under certain conditions (differences in temperature)

41 40 Liquid particle arrangement u Liquids have particles that are close together, but are free to move

42 41 Question u Describe the shape of a liquid.

43 42 Describe a liquid u Liquids do not have a definite shape, but they have a definite volume

44 43 Question u What happens when one-liter of soda is poured into a four- liter container?

45 44 Properties of liquids u Liquids do not expand to fill the volume of a container u Liquids are characterized by their ability to flow

46 45 What is viscosity? u The resistance of a liquid to flow u The difficulty of a liquid to flow easily u Honey, motor oil, corn syrup have a high viscosity

47 46 Behavior of liquids u Cohesion is the force of attraction between LIKE particles u Adhesion is the force of attraction between UNLIKE particles

48 47 Surface tension (video) (video) u Tendency of particles to pull together at the surface of a liquid due to cohesion

49 48 Question u Describe the viscosity of a liquid. u Describe a liquids shape.

50 49 Questions u How is adhesion different from cohesion? u Explain surface tension.

51 50 Properties of gases u Gases do not have a definite shape or volume (video)(video) u They fill all the available space in a container

52 51 Kinetic Molecular Theory of Matter u Matter is made of tiny particles in constant motion

53 52 Question u How are solids, liquids, and gases different from one another?

54 53 Gas laws u Boyles and Charles law describe the behavior of gases with changes in temperature, pressure, and volume

55 54 Charles Law u Charles law describes a relationship between the temperature and volume of a gas (constant pressure)

56 55 Charles Law u As the temperature of a gas increases, the volume of a gas increases u Heating air causes it to expand

57 56 Question u How can you explain the fact that gas particles expand to fill space?

58 57 Pressure u The force that particles of a substance (gas/liquid) will apply over a certain area

59 58 Boyles Law u Boyles law describes the relationship between the volume and pressure of gases (constant temperature)

60 59 Boyles law u If the volume of a gas decreases, then the pressure of a gas increases (Boyles law) u The smaller the space a gas occupies, the more pressure

61 60 Plasma u Plasma (phase) u most common phase in the universe, dangerous, very high energy (found in stars)

62 61 Question u What are the four phases of matter? u Describe the plasma phase of matter.

63 62 Phase changes (video) (video) u Phase changes in matter are melting, freezing, vaporization, condensation, and sublimation

64 63 What is a physical change? u Physical changes involve the changing of physical properties u Type of matter remains the same

65 64 Questions u Describe each of the five phase changes (melting, freezing, vaporization, condensation, and sublimation).

66 65 Physical changes u Changing color, shape, phase, texture, hardness, odor would be a physical change

67 66 Melting video video u Phase change from a solid to a liquid

68 67 Melting point u Temperature in which a solid changes to a liquid u Physical property

69 68 Questions u How is melting different from freezing?

70 69 Phase changes (video) (video) u Involve a change in volume, but mass remains constant u Adding or removing energy from matter results in phase changes

71 70 Vaporization u Phase change from a liquid to a gas

72 71 Boiling point (video) (video) u The temperature in which a liquid boils u Point at which a liquid changes to a gas

73 72 Freezing (video) (video) u Phase change of a liquid to a solid u The temperature in which this occurs is the freezing point

74 73 Condensation u Condensation is the phase change from a gas to a liquid u Sublimation is a phase change from solid to a gas

75 74 Question u Describe a difference between condensation and vaporization.

76 75 Sublimation examples u Dry ice and iodine are examples solids that undergo sublimation

77 76 Chemical properties u Describe how a substance changes into new substances are chemical properties u Ex: flammability

78 77 Chemical changes u The change of a substance into a new and different substance u Also known as a chemical reaction u video video

79 78 Questions u What is another name for a chemical change? u Describe sublimation. u How is a chemical change different from a physical change?

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