 # Properties of matter.

## Presentation on theme: "Properties of matter."— Presentation transcript:

Properties of matter

General Properties of Matter
Matter is anything that has mass and volume Everything is made of matter

What are properties? Characteristics used to describe an object Ex: color, odor, shape, size, texture,hardness video

General Properties of matter
Mass, weight, volume, and density Properties are used to identify a substance

What is mass? Mass is the amount of matter in an object Mass is constant Mass is also the measure of inertia

What is inertia? Inertia is the resistance of an object to changes in its motion The more mass the greater the inertia

Questions How is mass related to inertia? Why are properties of an object important?

Force and inertia When an object is at rest, a force is needed to overcome the inertia to make it move and to stop the object’s motion

Question Which object has more inertia, an empty wagon or one loaded with rocks? Why?

What does a seatbelt do for a passenger when a car stops suddenly?
Question What does a seatbelt do for a passenger when a car stops suddenly?

Question Why would the passenger move forward without the restraining force of the belt?

What would stop a passenger if the seatbelt were not in place?
Question What would stop a passenger if the seatbelt were not in place?

Question What other safety features are present in a car in response to a person’s inertia in a moving vehicle?

Weight The measure of the force of gravity on the mass of an object
Weight changes with gravity The metric unit for weight is a Newton (N)

Weight formula 1 kg = 2.2 pounds
Weight is mass times gravity (9.8 m/s2) W= m x g What is your mass? What is your weight in Newtons?

What is gravity? The force of attraction between objects is gravity
All objects exert a gravitational force on each other

Question Why can’t you feel the attraction between you and other objects the same way you are pulled toward Earth?

The greater the mass of an object the greater the gravitational force
Gravitational pull The greater the mass of an object the greater the gravitational force

Question Why can’t we feel the pull of gravity from Jupiter even though it is so massive?

What affects gravity? The pull of gravity weakens as the distance between objects increases gravity depends on mass and distance

Gravity The further an object is from the center of the earth, the less the object will weigh

Question Would you weigh less, more, or the same on top of Mount Everest?

Question The moon is smaller than the earth. How would your weight be different on the moon?

Questions What are three properties of matter related to mass?

What is density and how is it calculated?
Question What is density and how is it calculated?

Density The density of water is 1.0 g/ml
Objects with densities greater than 1.0 will sink in water

Objects with densities less than 1.0 g/ml will float on water
Density Objects with densities less than 1.0 g/ml will float on water

Ice Ice floats therefore it is less dense than water Ice mostly remains underwater with only a portion of it being exposed

Astronomy fact! The planet Saturn has a density of less than 1.0 g/ml. If there was an ocean big enough to hold it, it would float!

Calculations If 96.5 grams of gold has a volume of 5 cubic centimeters, what is the density of gold?

Calculation If 96.5 g of aluminum has a volume of 35 cm3, what is the density of aluminum?

Calculation If the density of a diamond is 3.5 g/cm3, what would be the mass of a diamond whose volume is 0.5 cm3?

What is specific gravity?
A comparison of the density of a substance and the density of water is specific gravity

Questions How is density different from specific gravity?

What is a physical property?
Physical properties are those that can be observed without changing the identity of the substance

Phases of matter (video)
Four phases of matter: solid, liquid, gas, and plasma solids have a definite shape and volume

Solid particle arrangement
Solids are tightly packed and the particles vibrate Two types of solids are crystalline and amorphous

Types of solids Crystalline solids are arranged in repeating patterns called crystals (salt, sugar) Amorphous solids can lose their shape

Examples of amorphous solids
Tar, candle wax, glass Shape changes under certain conditions (differences in temperature)

Liquid particle arrangement
Liquids have particles that are close together, but are free to move

Describe the shape of a liquid.
Question Describe the shape of a liquid.

Liquids do not have a definite shape, but they have a definite volume
Describe a liquid Liquids do not have a definite shape, but they have a definite volume

Question What happens when one-liter of soda is poured into a four-liter container?

Properties of liquids Liquids do not expand to fill the volume of a container Liquids are characterized by their ability to flow

What is viscosity? The resistance of a liquid to flow
The difficulty of a liquid to flow easily Honey, motor oil, corn syrup have a high viscosity

Behavior of liquids Cohesion is the force of attraction between LIKE particles Adhesion is the force of attraction between UNLIKE particles

Surface tension (video)
Tendency of particles to pull together at the surface of a liquid due to cohesion

Question Describe the viscosity of a liquid. Describe a liquid’s shape.

Questions How is adhesion different from cohesion? Explain surface tension.

Properties of gases Gases do not have a definite shape or volume (video) They fill all the available space in a container

Kinetic Molecular Theory of Matter
Matter is made of tiny particles in constant motion

Question How are solids, liquids, and gases different from one another?

Gas laws Boyle’s and Charles’ law describe the behavior of gases with changes in temperature, pressure, and volume

Charles Law Charles’ law describes a relationship between the temperature and volume of a gas (constant pressure)

Charles’ Law As the temperature of a gas increases, the volume of a gas increases Heating air causes it to expand

How can you explain the fact that gas particles expand to fill space?
Question How can you explain the fact that gas particles expand to fill space?

Pressure The force that particles of a substance (gas/liquid) will apply over a certain area

Boyle’s Law Boyle’s law describes the relationship between the volume and pressure of gases (constant temperature)

Boyle’s law If the volume of a gas decreases, then the pressure of a gas increases (Boyle’s law) The smaller the space a gas occupies, the more pressure

Plasma Plasma (phase) most common phase in the universe, dangerous, very high energy (found in stars)

Question What are the four phases of matter? Describe the plasma phase of matter.

Phase changes (video) Phase changes in matter are melting, freezing, vaporization, condensation, and sublimation

What is a physical change?
Physical changes involve the changing of physical properties Type of matter remains the same

Questions Describe each of the five phase changes (melting, freezing, vaporization, condensation, and sublimation).

Physical changes Changing color, shape, phase, texture, hardness, odor would be a physical change

Melting video Phase change from a solid to a liquid

Temperature in which a solid changes to a liquid
Melting point Temperature in which a solid changes to a liquid Physical property

Questions How is melting different from freezing?

Phase changes (video) Involve a change in volume, but mass remains constant Adding or removing energy from matter results in phase changes

Phase change from a liquid to a gas
Vaporization Phase change from a liquid to a gas

Boiling point (video) The temperature in which a liquid boils
Point at which a liquid changes to a gas

Phase change of a liquid to a solid
Freezing (video) Phase change of a liquid to a solid The temperature in which this occurs is the freezing point

Condensation Condensation is the phase change from a gas to a liquid Sublimation is a phase change from solid to a gas

Question Describe a difference between condensation and vaporization.

Dry ice and iodine are examples solids that undergo sublimation
Sublimation examples Dry ice and iodine are examples solids that undergo sublimation

Chemical properties Describe how a substance changes into new substances are chemical properties Ex: flammability

Chemical changes The change of a substance into a new and different substance Also known as a chemical reaction video

Questions What is another name for a chemical change?
Describe sublimation. How is a chemical change different from a physical change?