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1 Properties of matter
2 General Properties of Matter u Matter is anything that has mass and volume u Everything is made of matter
3 What are properties? u Characteristics used to describe an object u Ex: color, odor, shape, size, texture,hardness u video video
4 General Properties of matter u Mass, weight, volume, and density u Properties are used to identify a substance
5 What is mass? u Mass is the amount of matter in an object u Mass is constant u Mass is also the measure of inertia
6 What is inertia? u Inertia is the resistance of an object to changes in its motion u The more mass the greater the inertia
7 Questions u How is mass related to inertia? u Why are properties of an object important?
8 Force and inertia u When an object is at rest, a force is needed to overcome the inertia to make it move and to stop the objects motion
9 Question u Which object has more inertia, an empty wagon or one loaded with rocks? Why?
10 Question u What does a seatbelt do for a passenger when a car stops suddenly?
11 Question u Why would the passenger move forward without the restraining force of the belt?
12 Question u What would stop a passenger if the seatbelt were not in place?
13 Question u What other safety features are present in a car in response to a persons inertia in a moving vehicle?
14 Weight u The measure of the force of gravity on the mass of an object u Weight changes with gravity u The metric unit for weight is a Newton (N)
15 Weight formula u 1 kg = 2.2 pounds u Weight is mass times gravity (9.8 m/s 2 ) u W= m x g u What is your mass? u What is your weight in Newtons?
16 What is gravity? u The force of attraction between objects is gravity u All objects exert a gravitational force on each other
17 Question u Why cant you feel the attraction between you and other objects the same way you are pulled toward Earth?
18 Gravitational pull u The greater the mass of an object the greater the gravitational force
19 Question u Why cant we feel the pull of gravity from Jupiter even though it is so massive?
20 What affects gravity? u The pull of gravity weakens as the distance between objects increases u gravity depends on mass and distance
21 Gravity u The further an object is from the center of the earth, the less the object will weigh
22 Question u Would you weigh less, more, or the same on top of Mount Everest?
23 Question u The moon is smaller than the earth. How would your weight be different on the moon?
24 Questions u What are three properties of matter related to mass?
25 Question u What is density and how is it calculated?
26 Density u The density of water is 1.0 g/ml u Objects with densities greater than 1.0 will sink in water
27 Density u Objects with densities less than 1.0 g/ml will float on water
28 Ice u Ice floats therefore it is less dense than water u Ice mostly remains underwater with only a portion of it being exposed
29 Astronomy fact! u The planet Saturn has a density of less than 1.0 g/ml. If there was an ocean big enough to hold it, it would float!
30 Calculations u If 96.5 grams of gold has a volume of 5 cubic centimeters, what is the density of gold?
31 Calculation u If 96.5 g of aluminum has a volume of 35 cm 3, what is the density of aluminum?
32 Calculation u If the density of a diamond is 3.5 g/cm 3, what would be the mass of a diamond whose volume is 0.5 cm 3 ?
33 What is specific gravity? u A comparison of the density of a substance and the density of water is specific gravity
34 Questions u How is density different from specific gravity?
35 What is a physical property? u Physical properties are those that can be observed without changing the identity of the substance
36 Phases of matter (video) (video) u Four phases of matter: solid, liquid, gas, and plasma u solids have a definite shape and volume
37 Solid particle arrangement u Solids are tightly packed and the particles vibrate u Two types of solids are crystalline and amorphous
38 Types of solids u Crystalline solids are arranged in repeating patterns called crystals (salt, sugar) u Amorphous solids can lose their shape
39 Examples of amorphous solids u Tar, candle wax, glass u Shape changes under certain conditions (differences in temperature)
40 Liquid particle arrangement u Liquids have particles that are close together, but are free to move
41 Question u Describe the shape of a liquid.
42 Describe a liquid u Liquids do not have a definite shape, but they have a definite volume
43 Question u What happens when one-liter of soda is poured into a four- liter container?
44 Properties of liquids u Liquids do not expand to fill the volume of a container u Liquids are characterized by their ability to flow
45 What is viscosity? u The resistance of a liquid to flow u The difficulty of a liquid to flow easily u Honey, motor oil, corn syrup have a high viscosity
46 Behavior of liquids u Cohesion is the force of attraction between LIKE particles u Adhesion is the force of attraction between UNLIKE particles
47 Surface tension (video) (video) u Tendency of particles to pull together at the surface of a liquid due to cohesion
48 Question u Describe the viscosity of a liquid. u Describe a liquids shape.
49 Questions u How is adhesion different from cohesion? u Explain surface tension.
50 Properties of gases u Gases do not have a definite shape or volume (video)(video) u They fill all the available space in a container
51 Kinetic Molecular Theory of Matter u Matter is made of tiny particles in constant motion
52 Question u How are solids, liquids, and gases different from one another?
53 Gas laws u Boyles and Charles law describe the behavior of gases with changes in temperature, pressure, and volume
54 Charles Law u Charles law describes a relationship between the temperature and volume of a gas (constant pressure)
55 Charles Law u As the temperature of a gas increases, the volume of a gas increases u Heating air causes it to expand
56 Question u How can you explain the fact that gas particles expand to fill space?
57 Pressure u The force that particles of a substance (gas/liquid) will apply over a certain area
58 Boyles Law u Boyles law describes the relationship between the volume and pressure of gases (constant temperature)
59 Boyles law u If the volume of a gas decreases, then the pressure of a gas increases (Boyles law) u The smaller the space a gas occupies, the more pressure
60 Plasma u Plasma (phase) u most common phase in the universe, dangerous, very high energy (found in stars)
61 Question u What are the four phases of matter? u Describe the plasma phase of matter.
62 Phase changes (video) (video) u Phase changes in matter are melting, freezing, vaporization, condensation, and sublimation
63 What is a physical change? u Physical changes involve the changing of physical properties u Type of matter remains the same
64 Questions u Describe each of the five phase changes (melting, freezing, vaporization, condensation, and sublimation).
65 Physical changes u Changing color, shape, phase, texture, hardness, odor would be a physical change
66 Melting video video u Phase change from a solid to a liquid
67 Melting point u Temperature in which a solid changes to a liquid u Physical property
68 Questions u How is melting different from freezing?
69 Phase changes (video) (video) u Involve a change in volume, but mass remains constant u Adding or removing energy from matter results in phase changes
70 Vaporization u Phase change from a liquid to a gas
71 Boiling point (video) (video) u The temperature in which a liquid boils u Point at which a liquid changes to a gas
72 Freezing (video) (video) u Phase change of a liquid to a solid u The temperature in which this occurs is the freezing point
73 Condensation u Condensation is the phase change from a gas to a liquid u Sublimation is a phase change from solid to a gas
74 Question u Describe a difference between condensation and vaporization.
75 Sublimation examples u Dry ice and iodine are examples solids that undergo sublimation
76 Chemical properties u Describe how a substance changes into new substances are chemical properties u Ex: flammability
77 Chemical changes u The change of a substance into a new and different substance u Also known as a chemical reaction u video video
78 Questions u What is another name for a chemical change? u Describe sublimation. u How is a chemical change different from a physical change?
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