Presentation on theme: "What is psychology? Types of psychologists The history of psychology"— Presentation transcript:
1What is psychology? Types of psychologists The history of psychology Intro toWhat is psychology?Types of psychologistsThe history of psychology
2What is psychology? Psyche – “Mind” Logos – “Knowledge or study” Study of behavior and mental processesEmpirical evidence – information gained from direct observation
3What are different types of psychologists? Clinical psychologists – work in clinics or hospitals or private practices treating mental disorders. They have a PhD.Psychiatrists are MDs (doctors) who specialize in the treatment of mental disorders. They treat disorders with medicine and a little counselingSchool Psychologist
4Sports/performance psychologist - Work for major league sports teams to maximize performance and minimize performance anxiety.Forensic psychologist -They testify in court to determine if a defendant is fit to stand trial. If a defendant is termed “insane” then no.Industrial/organization psychologists -Work for large corporations to maximize employee output and profit. They might work for human resources.
7Review questions:Carlos just moved to Duncanville from a small town and his parents were just divorced. He’s been having a hard time with life. Carlos might see aPsychiatristClinical psychologistCounselorMoe Sizlak
86. Mr. Didden was hired by the TLC company to help them retain their employees without lowering the firm’s profits. After TLC removed cubicles and permitted employees to decorate their workroom as recommended by Mr. Didden, the absentee rate declined and no employees left for jobs elsewhere. Mr. Didden is most likely a) a forensic psychologist b) an industrial/organizational psychologist c) a counseling psychologist d) a clinical psychologist
9A psychiatrist typically has a a) Doctorate in Psychology b) Medical Degree c) Doctorate in Physiology d) Doctorate in Education
11Ancient RootsArchaeologists have found evidence of trephination – Stone Age humans carving holes in the skull to release evil spirits.
12The GreeksPlato and Democritus theorized about the relationship between thought and behavior.
13PhrenologyOld quacks used to predict personality based on the bumps on your head.
14Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) Founder of Structuralism studied consciousness using the technique of introspection, studying your own thoughtsObserve reaction to stimuliEx. Speed of decision makingEx. AppleFrequently disagreed over perceptionsPsychology began in Germany.But most is here in USA, todayFirst to do psych experiments.
15William James (Functionalism) This approach says our mind is a product of our environmentHow we behaviorally and mentally adaptStudied animalsInfluenced by Darwin & natural selectionConsciousness cannot be studied.
16Gestalt Psychology – Max Wertheimer Emphasizing the study of thinking, learning, and perception in whole units, not by analysis into parts.Thought structuralism was a mistake to analyze events into pieces or “elements”Ex. Happy Birthday
18Neuroscience Perspective Biology explains everything!Feelings and behaviors come from your brain, body chemistry, neurotransmitters, etc…Focus medical treatment with drugs and surgeryIf you could not remember the names of your parents and went to a psychologist who adheres to the neuroscience perspective, what might they say?
19Evolutionary Perspective Focuses on Darwinism.Natural selectionWe behave the way we do because we inherited those behaviors.Behaviors must have helped ensure our ancestors’ survival.How could this behavior ensured Homer’s ancestors survival?
20Psychodynamic Perspective Fathered by Sigmund Freud.Our behavior comes from unconscious drives (sex).Usually stemming from our childhood and unresolved conflictRevealed in dreams, emotions, and speechWhat might a psychoanalyst say is the reason someone always needs to be chewing gum?
21Psychoanalytic Perspective If a man has intimacy issues and cannot form relationships with others. What do you think someone from this school may think?Perhaps they may delve into the man’s unconscious and discover that he was bullied when he were younger. The bullying may have caused fear in getting close to others.
22Behavioral Perspective Pavlov & WatsonFocuses on our OBSERVABLE behaviors.How behaviors are learned & modifiedWorked with animals (rats, pigeons, dogs)Rewards and punishments.If you bit your fingernails when you were nervous, a behaviorist would not focus on calming you down, but rather focus on how to stop you from biting your nails.
23Behavioral Perspective Pretend that you fail psychology class. You become depressed. In turn, you begin to binge and gain weight.What do you think a behaviorist may do?They would probably ignore the fact that you are depressed and just focus on your overeating.Maybe make you run a mile every time you eat over 2000 calories.
24Cognitive Perspective Focuses on how we think or encode informationMemoryHow did we learn to act to sad or happy events?Cognitive Therapist attempt to change the way you think.Meet girlGet Rejected by girlOr get back on the horseDid you learn to be depressed
25Social-Cultural Perspective Focus on how your culture affects your behavior.Cultures place value on individual or the groupEven in the same high school, behaviors can change in accordance to the various subcultures.
26Humanistic Perspective Carl Roger & Abraham MaslowFocuses on positive growthAttempt to seek self-actualization (be all you can be)Disorders are due to ideal self and actual self not in congruenceReflective listening, self-help(think hippies)
27Wilhelm Wundt and the structuralists studied questions still asked today primarily by a) behavioral psychologists b) cognitive psychologists c) psychodynamic psychologists d) humanist psychologists
282. With which definition of psychology would John Watson and B. F 2. With which definition of psychology would John Watson and B. F. Skinner most agree? a) Psychology is the science of behavior. b) Psychology is the science of mental processes. c) Psychology is the science of behavior and mental processes. d) Psychology is the science of behavior and mental processes specific to contexts.
29The question “Is intelligence more influenced by heredity or experience?” deals with a big issue in psychology known as a) stability vs. change b) mind-body dualism c) rationality vs. irrationality d) nature vs. nurture
30If Aristotle and Locke, who both believed that what we know is acquired from experience, were alive today, they would best agree with the a) behavioral approach b) psychoanalytic approach c) humanistic approach d) psychodynamic approach
31Which psychological approach is most concerned with the importance of encoding, storage, and retrieving information a) information technology b) behavioral approach c) biological approach d) cognitive approach
326. Dr. Didden was hired by the TLC company to help them retain their employees without lowering the firm’s profits. After TLC removed cubicles and permitted employees to decorate their workroom as recommended by Dr. Didden, the absentee rate declined and no employees left for jobs elsewhere. Dr. Didden is most likely a) a forensic psychologist b) an industrial/organizational psychologist c) a counseling psychologist d) a clinical psychologist
33A good definition of psychology is: a. the understanding of unconscious processesb. the study of the human mindc. the scientific study of human behaviorsd. the exploration of personality traitse. the scientific study of behavior and mental processes.
349. The branch of psychology concerned with everyday, practical problems is called a) developmental psychology b) abnormal psychology c) applied psychology d) cognitive psychology
35Functionalism is the historical school of psychology that focused its attention on a. unconscious processes and their effect on behaviorb. cognitive associations and how those impact learned actionsc. the effect of relationships between parents and children on behaviord. the belief that mental processes could best be understood in terms of their adaptive purpose and functione. the individual structures that make up the mind and how each affects and determines behavior
3611. William James, who was a pioneer in the development of functionalism, was most heavily influenced by a) Charles Darwin b) Sigmund Freud c) John Watson d) B. F. Skinner
3712. Historically, most of psychology’s research has been conducted in a) China b) Japan c) Mexico d) the United States
38Wundt’s technique of reporting one’s conscious mental experiences is known as a. introspectionb. structuralismc. functionalismd. psychodynamisme. humanism
3914. According to behaivorists, behavior is governed primarily by a) heredity b) personal motives c) the environment d) unconscious desires
4015. A psychiatrist typically has a a) Doctorate in Psychology b) Medical Degree c) Doctorate in Physiology d) Doctorate in Education