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Intro to What is psychology? Types of psychologists The history of psychology.

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1 Intro to What is psychology? Types of psychologists The history of psychology

2 What is psychology? Psyche – Mind Logos – Knowledge or study Study of behavior and mental processes Empirical evidence – information gained from direct observation

3 What are different types of psychologists? Clinical psychologists – work in clinics or hospitals or private practices treating mental disorders. They have a PhD. Psychiatrists are MDs (doctors) who specialize in the treatment of mental disorders. They treat disorders with medicine and a little counseling School Psychologist

4 Sports/performance psychologist - Work for major league sports teams to maximize performance and minimize performance anxiety. Forensic psychologist -They testify in court to determine if a defendant is fit to stand trial. If a defendant is termed insane then no. Industrial/organization psychologists - Work for large corporations to maximize employee output and profit. They might work for human resources.

5 5 Psychologys Subfields: Applied

6 6 Psychologys Subfields: Research

7 Review questions: Carlos just moved to Duncanville from a small town and his parents were just divorced. Hes been having a hard time with life. Carlos might see a a.Psychiatrist b.Clinical psychologist c.Counselor d.Moe Sizlak

8 6. Mr. Didden was hired by the TLC company to help them retain their employees without lowering the firms profits. After TLC removed cubicles and permitted employees to decorate their workroom as recommended by Mr. Didden, the absentee rate declined and no employees left for jobs elsewhere. Mr. Didden is most likely a) a forensic psychologist b) an industrial/organizational psychologist c) a counseling psychologist d) a clinical psychologist

9 A psychiatrist typically has a a) Doctorate in Psychology b) Medical Degree c) Doctorate in Physiology d) Doctorate in Education

10 Major Perspectives of Psychology (a preview)

11 Ancient Roots Archaeologists have found evidence of trephination – Stone Age humans carving holes in the skull to release evil spirits.

12 The Greeks Plato and Democritus theorized about the relationship between thought and behavior.

13 Phrenology Old quacks used to predict personality based on the bumps on your head.

14 Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) Founder of Structuralism – studied consciousness using the technique of introspection, studying your own thoughts – Observe reaction to stimuli – Ex. Speed of decision making – Ex. Apple – Frequently disagreed over perceptions Psychology began in Germany. But most is here in USA, today First to do psych experiments.

15 William James (Functionalism) This approach says our mind is a product of our environment How we behaviorally and mentally adapt Studied animals Influenced by Darwin & natural selection Consciousness cannot be studied.

16 Gestalt Psychology – Max Wertheimer Emphasizing the study of thinking, learning, and perception in whole units, not by analysis into parts. Thought structuralism was a mistake to analyze events into pieces or elements Ex. Happy Birthday

17 Psychologys Perspectives The Big Seven

18 Neuroscience Perspective Biology explains everything! Feelings and behaviors come from your brain, body chemistry, neurotransmitters, etc… Focus medical treatment with drugs and surgery If you could not remember the names of your parents and went to a psychologist who adheres to the neuroscience perspective, what might they say?

19 Evolutionary Perspective Focuses on Darwinism. Natural selection We behave the way we do because we inherited those behaviors. Behaviors must have helped ensure our ancestors survival. How could this behavior ensured Homers ancestors survival?

20 Psychodynamic Perspective Fathered by Sigmund Freud. Our behavior comes from unconscious drives (sex). Usually stemming from our childhood and unresolved conflict Revealed in dreams, emotions, and speech What might a psychoanalyst say is the reason someone always needs to be chewing gum?

21 Psychoanalytic Perspective If a man has intimacy issues and cannot form relationships with others. What do you think someone from this school may think? Perhaps they may delve into the mans unconscious and discover that he was bullied when he were younger. The bullying may have caused fear in getting close to others.

22 Behavioral Perspective Pavlov & Watson Focuses on our OBSERVABLE behaviors. How behaviors are learned & modified Worked with animals (rats, pigeons, dogs) Rewards and punishments. If you bit your fingernails when you were nervous, a behaviorist would not focus on calming you down, but rather focus on how to stop you from biting your nails.

23 Behavioral Perspective Pretend that you fail psychology class. You become depressed. In turn, you begin to binge and gain weight. What do you think a behaviorist may do? They would probably ignore the fact that you are depressed and just focus on your overeating. Maybe make you run a mile every time you eat over 2000 calories.

24 Cognitive Perspective Focuses on how we think or encode information Memory How did we learn to act to sad or happy events? Cognitive Therapist attempt to change the way you think. Meet girl Get Rejected by girl Did you learn to be depressed Or get back on the horse

25 Social-Cultural Perspective Focus on how your culture affects your behavior. Cultures place value on individual or the group Even in the same high school, behaviors can change in accordance to the various subcultures.

26 Humanistic Perspective Carl Roger & Abraham Maslow Focuses on positive growth Attempt to seek self-actualization (be all you can be) Disorders are due to ideal self and actual self not in congruence Reflective listening, self-help (think hippies)

27 Wilhelm Wundt and the structuralists studied questions still asked today primarily by a) behavioral psychologists b) cognitive psychologists c) psychodynamic psychologists d) humanist psychologists

28 2. With which definition of psychology would John Watson and B. F. Skinner most agree? a) Psychology is the science of behavior. b) Psychology is the science of mental processes. c) Psychology is the science of behavior and mental processes. d) Psychology is the science of behavior and mental processes specific to contexts.

29 The question Is intelligence more influenced by heredity or experience? deals with a big issue in psychology known as a) stability vs. change b) mind-body dualism c) rationality vs. irrationality d) nature vs. nurture

30 If Aristotle and Locke, who both believed that what we know is acquired from experience, were alive today, they would best agree with the a) behavioral approach b) psychoanalytic approach c) humanistic approach d) psychodynamic approach

31 Which psychological approach is most concerned with the importance of encoding, storage, and retrieving information a) information technology b) behavioral approach c) biological approach d) cognitive approach

32 6. Dr. Didden was hired by the TLC company to help them retain their employees without lowering the firms profits. After TLC removed cubicles and permitted employees to decorate their workroom as recommended by Dr. Didden, the absentee rate declined and no employees left for jobs elsewhere. Dr. Didden is most likely a) a forensic psychologist b) an industrial/organizational psychologist c) a counseling psychologist d) a clinical psychologist

33 7.A good definition of psychology is: a. the understanding of unconscious processes b. the study of the human mind c. the scientific study of human behaviors d. the exploration of personality traits e. the scientific study of behavior and mental processes.

34 9. The branch of psychology concerned with everyday, practical problems is called a) developmental psychology b) abnormal psychology c) applied psychology d) cognitive psychology

35 10.Functionalism is the historical school of psychology that focused its attention on a. unconscious processes and their effect on behavior b. cognitive associations and how those impact learned actions c. the effect of relationships between parents and children on behavior d. the belief that mental processes could best be understood in terms of their adaptive purpose and function e. the individual structures that make up the mind and how each affects and determines behavior

36 11. William James, who was a pioneer in the development of functionalism, was most heavily influenced by a) Charles Darwin b) Sigmund Freud c) John Watson d) B. F. Skinner

37 12. Historically, most of psychologys research has been conducted in a) China b) Japan c) Mexico d) the United States

38 13.Wundts technique of reporting ones conscious mental experiences is known as a. introspection b. structuralism c. functionalism d. psychodynamism e. humanism

39 14. According to behaivorists, behavior is governed primarily by a) heredity b) personal motives c) the environment d) unconscious desires

40 15. A psychiatrist typically has a a) Doctorate in Psychology b) Medical Degree c) Doctorate in Physiology d) Doctorate in Education


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